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Carrots are a vegetable with a characteristic shade of color from pale orange to purple, growing area and taste. It can be sweet, or it can have a bitter, woody aftertaste. For a vegetable harvest to succeed, you need to follow certain rules.
We will share the secrets in this article on how to properly grow carrots in the open field, for example, in the country, and in a greenhouse in order to get a good harvest. You will learn everything about this root vegetable from A to Z, read about the little tricks of growing early and late varieties in different climatic zones.
Why follow the rules?
This crop may not yield a harvest if it is improperly maintained. Simple rules will help you avoid this. First, you need to remember that correct and timely feeding guarantees good germination of seedlings and a large number of root crops when collecting. Secondly, the chemical composition of the soil is important for guaranteed plant growth.
How to quickly grow a delicious root vegetable from seeds in different climatic zones?
Since the vegetable is an irreplaceable food product, it is grown almost everywhere - from the northern regions of the country to the southern ones. However, each region has its own characteristics.
The cultivation of carrots in the north of Russia requires special soil preparation and taking into account the peculiarities of the climate. Planting should be done from mid to late April, at temperatures ranging from + 12ºC during the day and up to -6ºC at night. If the soil does not have time to warm up, the seedlings will be late, and their growth will slow down.
The weather conditions differ slightly in different regions of the Urals and in Siberia. In the southern part it is slightly warmer, and the planting time is correct. In the Middle Urals, it is permissible to extend the sowing period until the end of May; in the northernmost part, you can start planting from the first days of June.
Since the crop emerges three weeks after sowing, it makes sense to shorten this period. To do this, use such techniques as soaking, germinating seeds, warming up in warm water (about half an hour) and in stimulants. After that, the seeds are hardened for a week (in a cellar or refrigerator at + 2 - 3ºC), dried to a semi-dry state and planted. It is important to choose varieties suitable for the northern zone:
- with a late sowing date;
- stored in winter;
- specially zoned for the region.
They have good taste and a long shelf life. For central Russia, the timing is slightly different. Due to the later onset of cold weather, it is possible to plant seeds earlier, without even specially preparing them. Seeds are suitable for both imported and domestic, with a quick implementation time and not frost-resistant.
How to choose the right variety for planting?
Even experienced vegetable growers find it difficult to choose the right seeds for planting. You always want to try something new, even though you risk not getting a harvest.
It is best to buy ready-made seeds in special stores. You need to choose F1 hybrids and zoned varieties, you can also novelties that are only suitable for climatic conditions. They are also divided into early-maturing, mid-maturing and late-maturing.
- Early ripe ripen within 65-90 days. They provide products for food and for a "bunch". They are usually stored for a short time and do not differ in the sweetness of root crops, but they provide an early harvest.
- Mid-season species gain sweetness and juiciness closer to autumn, are well stored and very tasty.
- Late ripening varieties are inferior to mid-season varieties, but they are also well stored and give a large harvest.
Due to improper care and weather conditions, carrots can bloom. This leads to a decrease in the quality and quantity of the crop. The arrows (flowers) that appear deplete the plant, making the root crops unsuitable for food.
The problem may arise due to:
- short daylight hours (less than 10 hours);
- cold spring;
- low temperature;
- thickening of crops;
- over-fertilized soil, etc.
To avoid flowering carrots, it is enough to follow the rules of crop rotation, and try to choose seeds that do not lend themselves to shooting, or prepare them in advance (for example, soak them in potassium permanganate).
Step-by-step agricultural technology for cultivation in the open field, care and feeding
Cultivation technology includes several important stages:
- Presowing seed preparation... The day before boarding, it is recommended:
- soak them in warm water, and you can stand for a day or two in the refrigerator;
- immerse in hot water for a few minutes, then in cold water to destroy possible diseases;
- soak in a biostimulator (special solution).
- Landing... For work, you need a ripper or a stick. In pre-prepared, preferably moist and loosened soil, grooves are drawn with a distance of 25-30 cm and a depth of 2-3 cm. Planting dates are determined by soil moisture, and are usually carried out a few days after the snow melts.
- Care... The plant needs daily watering, and protection from too high and low temperatures.
Watering is recommended by sprinkling, but not from a hose, so as not to wash out the seeds.
What fertilizer does a plant like? You can apply fertilizers to any soil:
- suitable mineral (for peat;
- phosphorus and nitrogen (for sand);
- sand and sawdust (for chernozem);
- humus and peat (for clay and podzolic).
It is necessary to thin out and weed seedlings at a height of 1-3 cm, leaving a distance of 3-4 cm between them. The second thinning is carried out when the seedlings reach 10 cm, and the distance is increased to 5-7 cm.
Grass, leaves and composts are suitable as mulching: they retain moisture, plus they do not allow the plant to freeze. For laying, a layer of 2-3 cm (from grass and leaves), or 5-8 cm (from compost) is enough.
- Harvesting... Carrots are harvested during the dry season to avoid storage problems. It is easy to dig it out along the row with a shovel. It is better not to cut off the tops with a knife, but to unscrew them.
- Harvest storage... Boxes of sand or raw sawdust are perfect for this. As well as polyethylene bags with holes. The temperature in the storage room should not exceed + 7ºC, and the humidity should not be lower than 90%.
Features of planting in a greenhouse
To make the crop harvest available all year round, greenhouses are used. How to grow early carrots? This method has some nuances:
- Varieties must be selected for early planting.
- There should be enough light for the plant to grow.
- The greenhouse must be ventilated.
- Temperature - no higher than + 15ºC.
Secrets of a Good Big Harvest
For a good harvest of carrots, you can use certain tricks:
- To increase the size of the vegetable, you must first select the correct soil, dug in advance and sealed with fertilizers without a chloride component. Less fertilizers are applied to fertile soil than to poor one, by about a third - about 20-30 g / sq. m.
- Accelerate ripening it is possible by providing the vegetable with as much sunlight as possible, timely watering and thinning.
- Increase sweetness simply, adding potash fertilizer 2-3 times during the growth of the plant, to poor soil - about 4 times. This promotes the accumulation of sugars in root crops, increases their storage and productivity.
A carrot business can be a profitable business without requiring a lot of investment. But here, too, there are pros and cons:
- High purchasing power... The vegetable is often added to dishes, used daily.
- Small investmentthat will pay off later.
- Simple maintenance and care: the harvest is guaranteed even in case of frost.
- Hard physical work: planting, weeding, collecting, etc.
- Time, which will have to be spent on learning the basics of growing a crop (about a month).
You can't do without calculations. First of all, you will have to calculate:
- Number of seeds for planting... For 100 acres, approximately 3 kg of seeds will be required, in the range of 500-2,500 rubles per 1,000 g.
- The number of people involved in the work... For a certain fee (5,000-7,000 rubles a month), you can first hire 2-3 people.
- Required inventory: walk-behind tractor, seeder, hiller, digger. The equipment will cost approximately 50,000 rubles plus the price for its delivery.
- The cost lease / purchase of land.
- Unforeseen (equipment breakdown) and ongoing costs (for example, the price of fertilizers).
It is possible to sell the finished product to a retailer, to wholesalers, stores, etc. The average selling price - 20 rubles per 1 kg - will bring 600,000 rubles from 30 tons of harvest.
For the official registration of activities, one cannot do without a list of documents:
- Application of the required form.
- Agreement on the establishment of a peasant farm with copies of documents of all participants (intermediaries).
- A copy of the business owner's passport (it will be verified against the original).
- Documents of the participants (intermediaries) of the project, confirming the place of their registration.
- Receipt for payment of the state fee.
In addition, you will have to resolve simple issues with local authorities.
The choice of the taxation system will also require special attention. Of the classifiers OKVED (All-Russian Classifier of Economic Activities) and OKPD (All-Russian Classifier by Types of Economic Activity), OKVED 1.13 is the most suitable. A suitable taxation system could be the EHSN (unified agricultural tax), which will allow you to pay about 6% of profits, twice a year.
Diseases and pests
The main plant diseases include:
The following pests can damage the growth and development of sprouts:
- carrot fly and flies;
- carrot moth;
- root knot nematode;
- naked slug;
- winter scoops;
The fight and prevention against diseases will be weeding, plowing the land and treating crops with chemical compounds.
Pyrethroid drugs - insecticides that fight plants and animals, parasites - can cope with pests.
We offer you to watch a video about protecting carrots from diseases and pests:
Problems and dealing with them
Sometimes the planted plant suffers from ailments. Problems can be:
- Poor growth... It is corrected by adding top dressing, watering, pest control (bear).
- Putrefaction... Reducing watering, thinning, removing diseased root crops will help against it.
- Cracks... Prevention - timely prepared soil with fertilizers (if the latter are necessary).
- Wrong shape... May appear due to the high nitrogen content in the soil. It is neutralized with organic fertilizers, humus, wood ash.
- Excessive presence of roots... Regular watering and deep weeding will help.
Carrots are a vegetable commonly used and grown in all regions of the country. Subject to the rules of agricultural technology, it gives a generous harvest, rich in vitamins and flavoring properties. And the right approach to selling it will definitely bring profit to the farmer or villager.
We offer you to watch a video about growing carrots and the secrets of a good harvest: