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More than once in the circle of gardeners and truck farmers, the opinion was discussed that earlier in the 80s, no one had heard about the terrible diseases of agricultural crops. They planted seedlings, without chemical treatments, and safely received the harvest.
And now everything has changed dramatically. And they associate this with the active development of pathogenic fungi.
These pathogenic diseases include late blight. This article tells about the effect of phytophthora on plants, and also describes the most effective ways to combat this disease.
What it is?
Late blight is a fungal disease that affects plants... The causative agents are the mushroom "late blight", which in Latin means - an infectious plant eater. The genus late blight are mycelial parasitic organisms that often lead a saprotrophic lifestyle. To date, more than 70 species of this fungus have been described, but, according to experts, another 500 species have not yet been fully studied.
Reference! The defeat by late blight occurs by the ingress of a pathogen into the plant, through damage on the leaf plate or the most unprotected place - the stomata. This is a place on the surface of the sheet that is involved in the process of gas exchange and evaporation of liquid.
But for the unhindered entry of the fungus inside, water is required, joining in it, the spore enters the body. And sadly, but after that the plant will die.
Check out the photo of late blight further:
Where and when is it formed?
Pathogenic trace elements are retained in the affected vegetable tubersleft in the ground after harvesting, in compost heaps together with the tops of diseased plants, in the soil, on the walls and roof of the greenhouse, in seeds, on garden tools. The main task of the gardener is to prevent the spread of harmful microflora. Phytophthora prefers:
- soils with a lot of lime;
- dense plantings, this happens in greenhouses where there is no access to air for ventilation, high humidity and temperature are maintained;
- sharp temperature drops, due to which dew is formed - an additional source of moisture;
- immunocompromised plants;
- an excess of nitrogen fertilizers in the soil.
Attention! With the arrival of spring, harmful organisms begin to actively develop.
Suitable conditions serve as a push: the ambient air temperature is above + 10 ° С; humidity 75%, which last for several days. Together with raindrops, spores fall into the ground, or infect vegetative areas of young plants, through wounds, leaves, tubers, and stems.
Why is it dangerous?
The harmfulness of this disease lies in the fact that, despite the long ripening period of the pathogen, it is able to infect the entire crop, for example, tomatoes, in a matter of days. Gray spots appear on vegetables, around which a white bloom.
Hence the second name of the disease - "gray rot". Plants rot, and the fruits, respectively, the fruits lose their presentation, deteriorate during transportation or storage.
The fungal pathogen is distinguished by its vitality, it does not die even from the winter cold. Late blight also causes loss of crop quality, infects sowing materials, and affects the resistance of plants to other diseases.
Which culture is striking?
First of all, late blight disease affects the nightshade family, which brings significant harm to gardeners. As already mentioned, this disease is extremely scary:
- for nightshades, affects peppers, tomatoes, eggplant, potatoes;
- cucumbers, zucchini, squash;
- citrus fruits;
- strawberries, strawberries;
- grapes, currants;
- castor oil plants and other plants.
How to detect?
The first signs appear a week after infection.
Main Symptoms: The lower leaves show brown or brown spots surrounded by a white border, which spread quickly. These spots are foci of the disease, which at later stages can cover the entire plant. Late blight causes severe harm to tomatoes and potatoes.
When late blight appears on tomatoes, dark moist areas of a round shape are shown on the stems. After rain, a white bloom can be seen on the underside of the leaf plate. Brown-brown spots also appear on the fruits of tomatoes, which quickly increase in size and can spread to healthy vegetables.
therefore it is important to discard damaged tomatoes immediately, do not leave on the bush. But it happens that the signs of the disease change, becoming in the form of circles with yellow and brown stripes, dark rings with a yellow border, or as oily, depressed blotches.
The appearance of this ailment is noted on the tubers, trunk, leaves. The development of late blight of potatoes begins during the flowering period. You can see brown leaves at the bottom of the bush, then the spores are thrown around and damage the upper parts of the young shoots. The foliage turns black, withers and dries up.
Important! If the disease is not stopped, but subsequently the plant will die completely.
How to get rid of late blight?
Unfortunately, no universal way of fighting has been found. To eliminate it, one should resort to agrotechnical measures and chemical treatment.
How to cultivate the soil?
Many gardeners and gardeners are wondering: how to cultivate the land from phytophthora in the spring? To destroy phytophthora spores in the ground, it is necessary to use fungicidesas well as microbiological substances. In the spring, a month before planting seedlings or other seeds in the soil, fungicides are applied. For these purposes, apply:
- copper sulfate;
- burgundy mixture;
Soil disinfection occurs like this:
- Dilute a 2-3% solution of copper sulfate.
- We process the earth with the resulting mixture.
- After we dig up the site.
- We water the soil with Fitosporin solution, which is pre-prepared as follows: 1 tablespoon is diluted in 10 liters of water. This mixture will be enough to water 10m2 of the area.
- Flowerbeds are treated with Ordan solution.
Microbiological agents can be used not only in springbut also throughout the year. Only exclude the period of flowering crops, because processing at this time can provoke the death of bees.
Greenhouse disinfection in spring
In order to prevent and prevent further infection with a fungal infection, greenhouses must be disinfected. If it is not removable, then it is necessary to rinse all the walls inside with a soda solution (200 g of soda is needed for 10 liters of water). After that, rinse everything with water under pressure, preferably from a hose.
Also, in the first days of spring or late autumn, sulfur bombs should be set on fire in the greenhouse or a piece of woolen cloth should be ignited. In this case, the doors must be tightly closed within 24 hours so that there is no air access. there is another method is dusting the greenhouse, mix wood ash with tobacco dust in a ratio of 1: 2, respectively. Grate the surfaces of the greenhouse with this mixture and sprinkle on the soil.
Reference! You can treat the entire greenhouse from the inside with Fitosporin solution or Baikal EM. For the winter, it is advisable to remove the doors in order to kill the infection with frost.
Many gardeners do not want to use chemicals for processing vegetables and fruit crops. Therefore, they use their own prepared preparations.
- Stir 1.5 cups of chopped chives in 10 liters of water, leave for 2-3 days. Then strain and add 2g potassium permanganate. Spray the fruit ovaries with this infusion, repeat the procedure after 10 days. Thus, the plants should be treated every 2 weeks for a positive result.
- All the aisles are powdered with wood ash before watering. The first procedure is carried out when the seedlings are planted, and the second one is already in the process of plant ovary.
- We take skim milk 0.5 liters and add 7-8 drops of iodine. And also spray the crops every 2 weeks.
- Fermented kefir 1 liter is diluted in 10 liters of water and the plant is treated.
To protect the crop from negative parasitic microorganisms in the vegetable garden or garden, plants should be treated with chemicals.
In fact, there are a lot of such substances, but the infection is easily adapted to them, therefore, fungicides are recommended to be alternated.
During the growing season, it is better to use: 1% Bordeaux liquid, a suspension of chloroxymedium (2g per 5 liters of water), Ditan (1g per 5 liters). These drugs have a more gentle effect.... However, for treatment, systemic fungicides are more suitable, which penetrate into the plant, kill the infection from the inside, thereby completely blocking its spread throughout the plant.
- Seeds that are resistant to late blight should be planted.
- It is important to place beds of nightshades away from each other.
- Remove the affected fruits and plants from the site and burn.
- Avoid overgrowing the beds, thin out the planting and eliminate weeds.
- Protect seedlings from sudden temperature changes. It is better to plant the plants after the end of night frosts or cover them with agrofibre.
- Fertilize the soil in moderation, especially nitrogen fertilizers.
- Use traditional methods of treatment as much as possible, they are more environmentally friendly and will definitely not harm human health.
- Ventilate greenhouses regularly.
Fighting and treating the dangerous disease late blight is often associated with the use of toxic chemicals. Therefore, for safety reasons, use personal protective equipment. But it is better to use potent substances only when urgently needed.
More information about what late blight is and how to deal with it is described in this video: