We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
The orchid is one of the most popular tropical plants cultivated by flower growers in many countries.
The most unusual variety of this flower is the black orchid. She is not only beautiful, but also quite whimsical in her care, therefore, in order to maintain her health, she needs to create conditions that are as close to natural as possible.
The article describes in detail how this type of plant looks like, what varieties exist with examples in the photo, and also gives useful recommendations for care.
What are these plants?
The black orchid is one of the most mysterious flowers. There are several versions of its origin. The most plausible of these is that the plant is the result of long-term work by Californian breeders. It was they who first patented a flower with an original name and a pleasant vanilla aroma.
Black orchids belong to the orchid family, the asparagus order, the monocotyledonous class, the flowering department. They grow in tropical forests, on mountain slopes, less often in savannas, attaching roots to other plants and receiving nutrients from the environment. Despite the color indicated in the name, the flowers are not painted in black, but in other dark shades:
Description of appearance
The black orchid has the following distinctive features:
- the height of the stems reaches a maximum of 50 cm;
- flower diameter varies from 1.5 to 7 cm;
- the presence of four petals, which, when opened, resemble tulip petals.
Plant varieties differ from each other:
- the shape of the petals;
- the height of the stems;
- the size of the leaves;
What varieties of dark color: description and photo
The most common varieties of the black orchid are as follows.
It has a deep purple color and contrasting white markings in the middle of the flower. The height does not exceed half a meter, the number of flowers on the peduncle is determined by the conditions of detention.
The flowers are large, with a glossy surface, painted in a blueberry shade, located on one peduncle.
The height of the plant does not exceed 40 cm. The buds on the peduncle have a dark blueberry color and a "waxy" surface.
It has narrow and long petals. The color is dark purple with a yellow center, the tongue is light lilac.
Differs in abundant flowering. Flowers of an unusual shape are located on four peduncles. Coloring - purple with burgundy tint.
The flowers have a rich blueberry color and a contrasting white core. Up to 10 black and white buds are formed on one peduncle.
Exotic black orchid is a whimsical plant that requires careful care. For him, it is necessary to create conditions as close as possible to the tropical habitat, which is familiar to this flower. The flower needs enough:
Caring for an exotic plant growing on a windowsill includes:
- Maintaining optimal temperature conditions. It should be between 18-22 degrees Celsius.
- Adequate lighting. An orchid needs a lot of light, but does not tolerate direct sunlight. On a hot afternoon, the plant should be shaded or removed from the windowsill.
- Moderate watering. The exotic flower does not tolerate drought and waterlogging equally badly. It is recommended to water it in the summer no more than 3 times in 7 days, in the cold season - once a week. In this case, it is necessary to periodically check the moisture content of the soil, an excess of water in the soil can provoke rotting of the root system.
Important! Standard soil is not suitable for planting. The soil should be loose and simple.
You can prepare the substrate from the ground mixed with:
- pine bark;
- peat moss Sfagnum;
It is advisable to use as additional components:
- chopped fern root.
The black orchid needs additional nutrients during growth and budding. At the same time, fertilizers should not be used during the dormant period, this will reduce the protective properties of the plant and lead to the appearance of diseases and parasitic insects.
For feeding, you must choose a special fertilizer for orchid plants. It is necessary to apply the composition as follows:
- Dilute according to the instructions in clean, settled water.
- Moisten the surface of the substrate, being careful not to get on the leaves.
- Feed no more than once every 2-3 weeks.
The plant must be transplanted according to the following scheme:
- Prepare a suitable pot.
- Make a loose substrate.
- Sterilize the instrument for cutting off damaged areas.
- Grind activated charcoal tablets for sectioning.
- Water the flower abundantly so that its root system gains elasticity and breaks less when removed from an old container.
- Shake off excess soil from the roots. If the transplant is associated with an infection of the flower, then all the old soil must be thoroughly shaken off. To do this, you can rinse the roots under running water and dry them on a napkin for a quarter of an hour.
- Examine the rhizomes. Cut off rotten areas, treat the cuts with crushed activated carbon. If the root has completely rotted, it is advisable to cut it off entirely, and hang the plant over a container of water so that it takes down new roots.
- If the root system is completely healthy, you can move the orchid to a new pot and cover it with substrate.
- Place the flower in a warm place with sufficient lighting. Do not water.
Important! Transplanting the plant during flowering is not allowed. Such manipulations will lead to dropping of the buds.
A home-grown orchid is propagated in the following ways:
- dividing the bush;
- department of children.
Growing a flower from seed is quite problematic. This requires special greenhouse conditions.
For flower growers, the most popular breeding method is considered to be germination in special flasks. (flasks with seedlings). This requires:
- Break the flask.
- Remove the seedlings.
- Rinse them with running water.
- Leave in a weak solution of manganese permanganate for a few minutes.
- Put on a napkin and dry.
- Prepare the substrate.
- Place seedlings in it, being careful not to deepen the leaves.
- Place the plant in a suitable environment at a temperature of 22 to 24 degrees Celsius. In this case, the pallet must be filled with water, and the flower itself must be placed under a fluorescent lamp.
- As the substrate dries, the flower should be moistened by placing it in water for a few minutes. If there are several seedlings, you can fill the tray with water with a fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. During this period, additional foliar feeding is also required.
- As soon as the root baby appears, it can be separated. It is desirable if by this time its own root system and leaves are formed.
- Sprinkle the cut area with crushed activated carbon.
- Plant the separated baby in the same way as seedlings.
Pests and diseases
The black orchid, like any other plant, is subject to various diseases and attacks of insect pests. Most often, diseases manifest themselves through a change in the appearance of the leaves. They turn yellow and become covered with:
- red dots.
The most dangerous pests are:
- scabbards, etc.
Of the most common diseases in orchids, the following are distinguished:
- late blight;
- rot (brown, dry and white);
In most cases, the flower can be treated with special preparations and insecticides. In advanced cases, the plant must be transplanted, removing the affected areas or completely removing the diseased root system.
If you follow the elementary advice of florists, you can achieve multiple flowering of a black orchid. This plant adapts well to indoor life, but its condition depends on the created microclimate. Lack of care affects the well-being of the flower, unkempt specimens are more often exposed to various diseases and attacks of insect pests.