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There are an incredible number of orchids - more than 25 thousand species. A luxurious flower is often given for the holidays or bought on its own - in the hope that the orchid will delight with flowering for many months.
But without attention, the capricious flower loses its attractiveness and quickly dies, since the orchid is susceptible to a large number of diseases. The external manifestation of the disease is often the spots on the leaves of different colors, shapes and types.
Specks on the leaves
The spots found on the capricious beauty can have a different color, be both dry, with velvety edges, and damp. In some diseases, the leaves become covered with sticky or even fluffy dots.
Why is this happening?
There are many reasons for the formation of such defects on the leaves - from late blight to a lack or excess of moisture and nutrients. Most often, the appearance of dots and ugly marks indicates that the flower has been damaged by a bacterial infection or fungus.
What they look like and what to do with them: photos and treatment features
By the color and shape of the spots, you can determine what problems the flower has, whether it is possible to solve them with a change of care or serious treatment is required
The most common problem with orchids is the appearance of black dots on the leaves, which grow over time and turn into visible spots.
- Basically, a similar problem indicates that the flower develops late blight. - one of the most dangerous diseases in orchids.
It is easy to recognize this particular disease - at the beginning of development, the spots have a purple tint, and then turn black. As soon as the first points appeared, urgent measures must be taken, otherwise the flower will die in a couple of months. Most often, the disease appears due to abundant, excessive watering - as soon as watering is reduced, the disease stops developing.
- Black flaws appear on the leaves also with a fungal infection of the plant. At the same time, at first, the damage resembles a sunburn, but then it increases, the fungus damages not only the leaves, but also the root system, and the plant dies.
If the fungus has just begun to develop, it is necessary:
- Wipe the leaves twice a day with a very weak solution of natural baking soda (a teaspoon in half a liter of lukewarm water). The alkaline environment will kill the fungus. Watering during treatment should be reduced to a minimum, spraying should be temporarily excluded.
- Also, the soil must be moistened by adding Fitosporin to the water - 1 g per 2 liters. lukewarm water.
If the leaves of a flower are covered with a fluffy bloom of white, this is a fungus, which is called Powdery Mildew. As the disease progresses, the leaves begin to turn yellow, then die off.
The pathogen appears due to very high humidity in the room, insufficient ventilation and high temperatures.
What needs to be done at the beginning of the development of the disease:
- Reduce watering and spraying.
- Wipe the affected area with a weak solution of soda, a solution of Fitosporin or Fundazol.
- Sprinkle the soil with crushed activated carbon.
Most often, these measures are enough for the plant to recover, and the disease has receded. During treatment, the plant must be isolated from other home flowers so that the disease does not spread to them. A sick orchid needs to provide a bright, but without direct sunlight, place with good access to fresh air.
Dry brown spots on the edges of the leaves indicate that the room is very humid. Spots from the edges gradually spread to the entire leaf, the leaves darken and die off. When you move the orchid to a more suitable room, the problem disappears in a couple of weeks.
Reference. The more common and more serious cause of brown spots on a flower is bacterial (brown) rot.
The disease often starts from the roots, and if it goes unnoticed, it spreads to the leaves. At the beginning of the development of the disease, the points are small, then increase and cover the entire leaf.
What to do in this case:
- Cut off all damaged parts of the leaves with scissors dipped in a soda solution.
- Treat the cut with a fungicide.
- Spray the soil with Fitosporin solution and sprinkle with crushed coal.
In the future, adjust watering - do not flood the orchid and prevent water from stagnating in the roots and bases of the leaves, since together with the hot air in the room this creates a favorable environment for the development of rot.
Very often the edges of the spots - brown or black - become wet or slimy.
- This is almost guaranteed to indicate the active phase of the development of a fungal or bacterial infection.
To prevent the development of the disease, damaged leaves or their sections are cut off with a sharp disinfected knife or scissors, the edges are powdered with crushed coal.
- Wet light (white) spots with brighter dots inside, with a dark rim around the edges indicate a burn - sun or heat.
Such damage occurs either with direct exposure to the sun, or when the flower stands close to the radiator and during the heating season the leaves come into contact with a hot surface.
In this case, it is worth moving the flower to a more suitable place and simply removing the damaged leaves - to give the orchid a decorative look.
Prevention of the appearance
Fungal or bacterial infections can be avoided - for this, orchids need to create good conditions for growth and flowering. Healthy, robust plants are able to resist disease and the risk of infection is dramatically reduced.
The plant requires:
- good, but not excessive lighting;
- regular spraying;
- top dressing.
What conditions must be met for the orchid to be healthy and blooming?
- Lighting. Orchids are light-loving plants; it is not easy to create ideal conditions for growth and flowering in an apartment. The plant needs sunlight - otherwise there will be no flowers. But when exposed to direct sunlight, burns appear on the leaves, damage and the risk of infection increases. Therefore, it is ideal to provide the flower with even diffused lighting (for example, through a light tulle) throughout the day, and hang a denser curtain at noon in the summer.
- Humidity should be strictly within the range of 60-70%. If the air is very dry - that is, the humidity is less than 50% for a long time - the defenses of the flower fall, the leaves dry out, become weak. At high humidity (above 80%), the risk of developing fungal diseases increases.
- Indoor temperature. Orchids do not tolerate either cold or heat. If the temperature drops below 15 degrees, the plant weakens, becomes lethargic, the risk of infection increases. On warm days, especially in bright sun, the leaves dry out and also become vulnerable to fungus or viral infections. Therefore, in the heat - above 28-30 degrees - the orchid needs to be shaded or transferred to a cooler room.
Important! Do not neglect special nutrient solutions for orchids - they provide the plant with not only bright greenery and beautiful flowers, but also protection from diseases.
Dark brown spots on flowers or roots: how to avoid?
Brown rot is dangerous because it quickly spreads from the leaves - sometimes in just a couple of days - to flowers and roots. To prevent the death of the flower, it is necessary to immediately remove damaged leaves or their parts, and spray the stem and soil with phytosporin.
In the future, avoid waterlogging the substrate, gently spray the leaves so that moisture does not linger at the base of the stem, and shade the plants during the summer heat.
Like any disease orchid leaf spots are easier to prevent than cure. Providing optimal growing conditions will prevent a virus or fungus from gaining a foothold on the plant. But if spots do appear, it is important to start treatment on time.
Pruning damaged leaves, treating with phytosporin, reducing watering and regulating the temperature in the room will quickly heal the flower and prevent the spread of the disease to the stem and roots.