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The representative of large orchids is cymbidium. Description, photo, care recommendations

The representative of large orchids is cymbidium. Description, photo, care recommendations



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Cymbidium is a common member of the Orchid family. Its large and fragrant flowers have won the hearts of people around the world.

It is believed that the Cymbidium orchid is the most unpretentious of all. It is adapted for growing at home and can adapt to low temperatures.

History of origin and habitat

In nature, the flower can be found in:

  • India;
  • Japan;
  • Vietnam;
  • Thailand.

He prefers subtropical forests located at an altitude of more than two thousand meters above sea level.

The first description of this species was made in 1799 by naturalist Peter Olof Swartz.

In vivo, the Cymbidium orchid is an epiphyte... With its roots, it clings to cracks in stones or tree bark. Most often it can be found in hollows and on large branches.

reference... Cymbidium is a Greek word that means boat-like. The orchid got its name due to the structure of the "lip".

What does it look like?

Cymbidium is a large representative of the Orchid family... Its peduncle reaches 1.3 m in height. The flowers are collected in loose clusters that hang down freely. The buds have different sizes, depending on the species, from 2 to 20 cm.

Common petal colors:

  • Shades of brown and burgundy... In this case, the "lip", as a rule, is lighter, almost white, has a certain amount of spots.
  • Color, from bright yellow to green... The “lip” has the same shade as the petals, and you can often see bright red blotches on it.
  • Cream or Milk Orchid, with a light "lip", which is decorated with small, bright strokes.

What is the difference from other species?

There are several signs by which Cymbidium can be easily distinguished from the rest of the family.

  • Leaves. They are long, linear, pointed at the ends.
  • The presence of a "lip". This is nothing more than an outgrowth in the sepal. Its peculiarity is its variegated color.
  • Pseudobulb. This is a thickened part of the stem, located at the very root. It is in them that the orchid accumulates moisture.
  • The petals and sepals are the same in shape and color.

reference... Too dark color of the leaf indicates that the plant is not receiving enough light.

Varieties - their names, characteristics, photos

The genus has several dozen representatives. Most often at home you can find the following varieties, photos of which will be shown to you below.

Lowe

Cymbidium lowianum plant grows one meter in height... The leaves are thin and very long. The peduncle is strong and grows up to one meter in length, while up to 30 flowers can be laid at the same time.

The active flowering phase begins at the end of winter. Bulbs are flattened, the main color of the petals is yellow. The lip is adorned with red blotches.

Ivory, or eburneum

The scent of the orchid Cymbidium eburneum vaguely resembles the scent of lilac. Large petals of a milky shade. The flower can reach 12 cm.

Aloe leaf

Cymbidium aloifolium (Cymbidium pendulum) can be attributed to the dwarf members of the family... Plant height does not exceed 30 cm. Flowers are small, pale yellow with a burgundy lip.

Giant

Cymbidium giganteum has lanceolate, pointed leaves, up to 60 cm. No more than 15 buds are laid on one peduncle. Inflorescences drooping, up to 60 cm. Petals are bright, yellow-green, decorated with burgundy stripes. It begins to bloom from the end of November.

Alexandra "Westonbirth"

Cymbidium alexanderi "Westonbirt" is a hybrid cultivar, bred in England at the beginning of the 20th century. He has a large, white flower with a bright pink "lip".

Bloom

These members of the Orchid family are distinguished by long flowering and pleasant aroma.

When and how does it happen?

A new peduncle usually appears in the middle of summer. On it, depending on the variety, there can be up to 30 flowers. In general, the flowering period lasts an average of 7 weeks. The first buds will begin to open in November and will be able to delight the owner until mid-February.

Home care

Before flowering, the plant needs to create ideal conditions.so that it can gain strength:

  • Do not leave the orchid pot in direct sunlight.
  • You should always maintain a high humidity in the room, up to 60%. An electronic humidifier or decorative fountain can be installed next to the cymbidium.
  • The temperature during the day should not exceed +18 degrees, and at night it should fall below +10. It is important to monitor the temperature difference, as this is a prerequisite for flowering.
  • After the orchid has faded, you should wait for the peduncle to dry and cut it off.
  • During the dormant period (2 - 3 months), it is important not to make additional feeding and reduce the air temperature to +16 degrees. It is also worth reducing watering to 2 times a month.

What if it doesn't give an arrow?

  1. Lighting. Cymbidium should receive enough light for 12 hours.
  2. Temperature. By the end of autumn, it is worth reducing the night air temperature to +10 degrees. This trick will tell the plant that winter is coming soon - the natural time of flowering.
  3. Humidity. Excessive watering will provoke root rot, to which the flower will certainly react. With constant drying out of the soil, the orchid will also drop all the buds. The right balance is important.
  4. To enhance growth, use ready-made complex fertilizers.

Step by step instructions for home care

If you create optimal living conditions for the plant, it will delight you with abundant flowering every year.

Seat selection

It is best to choose a window with a wide sill, located on the southeast side.

What pots to plant and how to prepare the soil?

It is important to choose a loose soil in which water will not stagnate... Its main function is to fix the roots in the pot. A mixture of:

  • pine bark;
  • moss;
  • charcoal;
  • and fern roots.

For an orchid, you can not choose a pot that is too spacious. It is best to purchase a plastic or glass one, since roots can grow on the walls of the ceramic or clay, which will complicate further transplantation.

Temperature

  • It is important to observe temperature fluctuations during the period of active growth.
  • In summer, during the daytime, the air temperature should be in the range from +20 to +27 degrees, and at night it should not fall below +18.
  • From autumn to spring, the temperature should not be higher than +18 degrees during the day, and +10 degrees at night.

Humidity

Optimal humidity for normal growth - 40 - 50%.

  • The plant should be sprayed several times a day or use a humidifier.
  • The pot can be placed on a pallet with damp expanded clay.

Lighting

  • Do not allow direct sunlight to fall on the leaves (this causes burns).
  • In insufficient light, the leaves will become lethargic, and the plant will stop blooming. It is always important to observe the 12 hour light regime.

Watering

In the summer, the orchid is watered once a week, and in the winter - once every two weeks.

A little moisture accumulates in pseudobulbs, thanks to which the flower can survive a short drought.

With an excess of water, the root system begins to rot, and with its lack, buds fall and leaves wrinkle.

Top dressing

  • During the period of growth of young shoots, complex fertilizer for orchids should be applied to the moistened soil.
  • Before flowering, it is best to use potassium-phosphorus fertilizers.
  • During the active flowering period, it is best to cancel the application of all fertilizers.
  • After flowering, do not feed the plant for 2 - 3 months, waiting for the formation of new pseudobulbs.

Transfer

You can transplant only after the end of flowering.

A transplant is necessary if:

  • The plant has been in the same soil for more than 3 years.
  • Orchid roots have completely filled the pot and are sticking out of it.
  • The stagnant water in the pot and the roots began to rot.
  • Pests have appeared.

Transplant technology:

  1. Prepare the soil and the pot for poor planting.
  2. Drainage should be created at the bottom of the container.
  3. Put the flower in a pot and sprinkle loosely with soil and water (if the roots were not damaged by rot).
  4. Remove the plant in partial shade for several days.

How to care for a flower to appear from the arrow?

To speed up this process, the plant needs to create optimal living conditions:

  • Day and night, there should be a constant temperature difference, at least 5 degrees.
  • During this period, do not allow direct sunlight to fall on the leaves. Lighting should only be diffused.
  • The ground part of the flower requires constant additional moisture.
  • Potassium-phosphorus fertilizers must be applied to the soil after the young shoots reach a height of 10-15 cm.

How to propagate?

At home, cymbidium can be propagated vegetatively (dividing the bush). It is important to remember that each division should contain several pseudobulbs and 2 - 3 young shoots.

  1. The plant is cleaned from the substrate.
  2. Cut the rhizome with a sharp knife and sprinkle the "wounds" with crushed activated carbon.
  3. An hour later, the delenki are planted in new pots.

Important! When transplanting, the new pot should be 2 cm larger than the previous one.

Diseases and pests

Diseases and pestsExternal signsThe main reason for the appearanceTreatment
Viral mosaicThe leaves dry and curl, and the flowers deform and fall off.Waterlogging of the substrate.The flower, together with the soil, must be destroyed.
Fusarium wiltingCastings fall off, and black spots appear together with their attachment to the stem.Waterlogging of the substrate.
  1. The infected parts of the plant must be removed.
  2. The place of the cut must be treated with iodine, spray the orchid with "Fundazol" and transplanted into a new soil.
ChlorosisYellow streaky streaks on the leaves.Lack of iron.Foliar dressing is carried out by spraying the leaves with a complex fertilizer.
Root rotThe roots begin to rot, and the leaves and shoots turn black.Waterlogging of the substrate in combination with low temperatures.There is no cure. The sick flower is destroyed.
AphidWhitish bloom on leaves and insect congestion.Dry air.The plant needs to be bathed (you can use soap) and spray it with an insecticide.
ShieldThe leaves turn pale, and a large number of tubercles can be seen on their surface.Low humidity.
  1. The bumps need to be scraped off and the leaves are treated with soapy foam.
  2. After that, you can treat the plant with "Metaphos".

Prevention of various problems

With improper care, the orchid suffers from a variety of fungal and parasitic diseases. Therefore, it is important to always maintain good humidity and optimal temperature in the room.

Growing a cymbidium orchid at home is not so difficult. The main thing is to follow all the rules of growing and provide the plant with the best conditions for keeping.


Watch the video: Cymbidium Orchid Care (August 2022).