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Amaryllis is a flowering plant native to South Africa. It belongs to the Amaryllis family and was first described by the biologist K. Linnaeus in the 18th century.
Belladonna is a prominent member of the family, which is widespread and popular among modern flower growers. The plant is grown both in pots and outdoors.
This article describes in detail the methods of caring for the beautiful Amaryllis Belladonna, recommendations are given for proper cultivation at home.
The genus Amaryllis (Amaryllis) is divided into two types:
- Belladonna (Amaryllis belladonna).
- Beauty (Amaryllis paradisicola).
In the past, other plant species were included in the genus Amaryllis, which were later allocated to a separate genus - Hippeastrum.
Amaryllis belladonna is a monocotyledonous bulbous species with a bulb diameter of 5 to 10 cm.The length of an amaryllis leaf can reach 50 cm, with a width of about 3 cm, they are painted green, have an oblong elongated shape and are arranged in two rows.
Belladonna inflorescences resemble a lily and are white or pink in various varieties. Flowers of a red or purple hue are less common. Amaryllis flowers are collected in inflorescences resembling an umbrella and located in two circles. Flowers have 6 petals, and their size can reach 6-10 cm in diameter. The peduncle of the plant is naked and can reach 50 mi in length.
The main difference between amaryllis belladonna and other similar flowers is that it lacks leaves during flowering. The second difference is flowering, belladonna blooms once a year for 2-3 weeks, while hippeastrum can produce a peduncle up to 4 times a year (learn about the differences between amaryllis and hippeastrum here). A very important aspect to know is - Amaryllis cunning is poisonous.
The stem and leaves of the flower contain amaryllidine, phenanthridine, which are also poisons. When these substances enter the human body, the following may occur:
- Have trouble breathing.
- Profuse salivation appears.
- Blood pressure rise.
- Bowel work upset.
therefore gloves should be worn while working with a flower. You should also keep the plant out of the reach of children and pets.
You can find out about the description and structure of amaryllis here, and read about the variety of varieties and plant species here.
Here you can see a photo of this beautiful but poisonous flower:
Flowering and dormant period
Belladonna blooms in late summer - early autumn for 2-3 weeks. Flowering occurs once a year.
Before flowering, amaryllis produces a peduncle, on which from 6 to 12 flowers appear. After pollination, seed pods appear on the flowers, which begin to ripen after the flower falls. also after the flowers fall, leaves appear and only after they die off does a period of dormancy begin.
While at least one leaf of amaryllis is alive, the dormant period has not frowned and the movement for the flower continues as usual.
Possible reasons for the lack of flowering:
- Unripe or small bulbs.
- Insufficient rest period, the flower did not have time to recuperate.
- Temperature too high or too low.
- The room is too dark.
- Poor soil, lack of trace elements in it.
- A young bulb, a peduncle releases. Only a mature bulb, at least 2-3 years old.
About why amaryllis does not bloom and how to make it give buds is described here.
Caring for a belladonna is quite simple and even a novice florist can cope with it.
Soil, pot and drainage
The composition of the soil for amaryllis dona includes such components as:
- Sod land -2 parts.
- Humus - 1 part.
- Leafy ground -1 part.
- Perlite or sand - 1 part.
Another composition is also possible:
- 3 pieces of leafy land.
- 1 part humus.
Another condition is that the soil for planting should be wet, not too wet or dry, and also sufficiently light and loose.
It is better to choose a pot for amaryllis that is deep enough, wide and stable. After all, the plant has a rather long peduncle and therefore it is easy to overturn it.
In addition, the diameter of the container should correspond to the bulb, the distance between it and the wall of the pot should not exceed 3-4 cm. Also, the pot should be deep so that the root system of the flower is sufficiently developed.
As a drainage during planting, you can use:
- Expanded clay.
- Broken brick.
- Stones or pebbles.
The temperature regime depends on the state in which the plant is. During the flowering period, the room temperature should be + 23-24 degrees, during the growth period - + 10-15 degrees. During the rest period - + 18-24 degrees.
Amaryllis does not like the bright sun, but at the same time it does not tolerate darkness well. In the room where the plant is located, the lighting should be bright, but diffused.
For watering belladonna, use clean, settled water at room temperature... In no case should the soil be dry, but excess moisture also harms it. Water the plant sparingly, along the edge of the pot, while the bulb must remain dry so that it does not rot.
In winter, watering is reduced, and during the dormant period, it is recommended to water the plant once a month (read about the rules for caring for amaryllis in winter here). Intensive watering begins only after the length of the peduncle reaches 10 cm.This moment is considered the exit from the dormant period.
Belladonna does not tolerate stagnant moisture in the soil.
Optimum humidity for belladonna is 50%, while the flower does not like spraying. If the room is too dry, then the plant can be placed on a saucer with water or wet expanded clay.
Amaryllis does not need pruning. After flowering, neither the bulb nor the vegetative part requires pruning. The only thing to do is to remove the peduncle.
The plant is fed only in the phase of active growth and flowering once every 2-3 weeks. Wherein use complex liquid fertilizers for flowering indoor plants... When choosing fertilizers, you should pay attention to the composition, phosphorus and potassium in it should be about 3 times more than nitrogen.
After the end of flowering, fertilization is stopped and resumed at the beginning of the next cycle (the field of regrowth of the peduncle).
Belladonna is transplanted after it has faded and its peduncle dries up. When transplanting, the bulb is removed from the pot, freed from the rotten parts of the root and children, and then planted in a separate pot so that 1/3 is on the surface. Belladonna is usually transplanted in November - December, when the plant has entered a dormant phase.
Reproduction by daughter bulbs is the simplest and most affordable way, which involves the following steps:
- Reproduction occurs during transplantation if there are children on the bulb.
- The baby is carefully cut from the mother's bulb with a sharp knife. The knife should be treated with alcohol before the procedure.
- Only smooth, strong and healthy baby bulbs with good, healthy roots should be planted.
- Before planting, dead scales are removed from the young bulb and placed in a saturated solution of potassium permanganate for 30-40 minutes, after which the planting material is dried for 12-14 hours.
- After that, the bulb is planted in a trapped pot, buried in the soil by 2/3 and gently watered.
With good care, a young plant will bloom in 2-3 years.
The first thing to do is get the seeds from the flower. They ripen within a month, after which they should be planted immediately to avoid overripening.
- Ripe seeds are poured into prepared moist soil and placed in a dark and warm place.
- The bud with crops is regularly abundantly sprayed from a spray bottle.
- After the appearance of the entrances, the container can be transferred to a lighter place and wait until the plants grow a little and get stronger.
- With a growth of 5-7 cm, I plant the plants in separate pots and watered as usual.
Most often, belladonna is susceptible to diseases such as:
- Anthracnose... It manifests itself as dark brown spots that resemble drips on the leaves.
- Fusoriasis - root rot. The reason is improper watering and low room temperature.
- Stagonosporosis - reddening of the bulbs.
For the prevention of diseases, planting material is treated with foundationol or Bordeaux mixture.
We talked about diseases, pests and treatment of amaryllis here.
Amaryllis belladonna flowers are very beautiful, large and have many different shades. In addition, it is enough to simply care for them and reproduce them. It is for this that the flower is actively used by flower growers to decorate rooms and balconies.