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Dill is a popular herb that is easy to buy at the store or market. But it's nice when fresh herbs are at home at the moment when they are urgently needed.
Do you want to learn how to grow dill on your own without spending a lot of money?
In the article you will find useful tips for germinating seeds, planting and caring for young seedlings.
Seed germination: how many days does it germinate?
If we calculate the percentage of seeds that sprout from their total number during sowing, we get a figure. This is how germination is determined. In the first 3-4 years, the seeds retain a high germination capacity. In subsequent years, this figure decreases, and the seeds germinate slowly. Therefore, it is important to choose high-quality planting material.
Seeds germinate in 20-25 days if sown dry in open ground.
What determines whether the first shoots appear quickly or for a long time?
VIR scientists collected data on the collection of dill plantings and found that varieties of different geographic origins do not differ in the timing of germination. We found out that it depends on the soil:
If the soil has warmed up to 10-12 ° C, then the shoots sprout 12-14 days after sowing. At a lower temperature, seedlings will hatch only 19-21 days.
It is known that the germination process is influenced by the chemicals contained in the seeds:
- essential oils;
These substances protect and nourish the seed, preventing moisture from entering quickly. It is important to remember that other factors also affect the rate of germination:
- Plant variety.
- Sowing site (it is much better to plant dill - in a sunny place or in the shade, read here).
- Landing time.
- Soil composition.
Thanks to the development of breeding, many varieties of spices have appeared, which differ in rosette size and ripening times. At the onset of maturity, the culture can be divided into the following types.
Plants reach marketable ripeness 33-35 days after germination., do not require special growing conditions, are unpretentious to soil conditions and taste good. These include:
A feature of early varieties - umbrellas appear immediately, as soon as the plant enters the stage of commercial maturity. Therefore, you will not be able to get a lot of greenery.
You can collect it in 35-40 days. They have a developed rosette of 6-10 leaves, which prolongs the period of cutting the greenery and ensures a high yield. You can sow:
The stems of these varieties are lush, raised above the ground. Greens have a pleasant taste and aroma. Umbrellas appear later than in early varieties.
Such varieties ripen for a long time, 65-70 days pass before the steming period. They are fruitful because they have a high trunk and the rosette contains 10 or more leaves.
The site must be chosen so that it is well lit. Although dill is unpretentious and cold-resistant, the spice grows faster in the sun than in shade. If it is cold outside, then you can make a shelter for seedlings, for example, a greenhouse (we described how to grow dill in greenhouses here). The spice is also grown at home on the windowsill or on the balcony.
What place is better to choose for growing dill, read here.
When is the best time to plant: optimal planting time
The optimal time for sowing is April, but in the southern regions of Russia, it can be planted earlier, and in the northern regions - in May, depending on the weather.
Dill is sown every 3 weeks during the summer, which ensures a regular harvest.
In addition to the warmth and moisture of the soil the length of daylight is important for the development of young seedlings... In April it is 12 hours.
What should be the composition of the soil?
When planting, you need to remember that dill culture does not tolerate acidic soil. Plants are not saturated with minerals in the right amount and, as a result, does not develop well.
When sowing dill seeds, avoid heavy clay soil. It is not saturated with air, so the greenery can turn yellow and lose its aesthetic appearance.
To obtain a decent harvest, the land needs a loose, fertile, well-moistened land. In the fall, the site for planting must be dug up and fertilized there. Compost or humus is suitable at the rate of 5 kg per 1m². It is advisable to add mineral fertilizers to the ground for 1m²:
- urea - 20 g;
- superphosphate - 30 g;
- potassium salt - 20 g.
It is undesirable to add wood ash and lime, because the greens will turn red.
What do the seedlings look like in the photo?
Next, you can see what the dill seeds look like in the photo:
How to properly care for sprouts after sowing outdoors?
The dill culture is unpretentious, but still requires care after the seeds have sprouted. Periodically it is necessary to carry out loosening, watering and weeding young shoots from weeds. The land needs to be moist, but not waterlogged.
Until the spice grows and reaches technical ripeness, becomes usable, there is no need to add additional fertilizing to the soil.
It is prohibited to treat greens with pesticides.
You will find more information on how to care for dill in our material.
Can germination time be accelerated?
You need to wait a long time until the seed sprouts, it germinates for a long time, but this process can be accelerated. There are several proven ways:
- The seeds are placed in a gauze bag, immersed in warm filtered water with a temperature of 20-22 ° C and left for 2-3 days. Change the liquid 4-5 times a day. You can not keep seeds in water all days, but only on the first day.
- On the second day, transfer them to a damp cloth or napkin and make sure that it does not dry out. Moisten if necessary.
- When the seeds swell, it is necessary to ensure that the room is warm.
- Consider what you can do to make seedlings appear faster, how to process the seeds. If you fill a bag of dill with hot water (55-60 ° C) for 2-3 minutes, the effect on essential oils will be stronger, and sprouts will appear faster.
By sowing wet seeds, not dry ones, you can get seedlings 2-3 days earlier.
- The use of biological growth stimulants. Dilute the amount of the drug in water, which is indicated in the manufacturer's instructions, and immerse the seeds in the solution. Growth stimulants affect the development of the embryo and accelerate root germination.
- Soaking in wood ash solution. Pour 2 tbsp into a liter jar of hot water. tablespoons of ash, mix and leave to infuse for 2 days, sometimes shaking. This solution contains many trace elements. It can be used instead of growth biostimulants.
- Using a solution of potassium permanganate. To wash the essential oils from the seeds, they are poured with water for 3-4 hours. At the same time, it is changed several times. Then the dill is placed in a strong solution of potassium permanganate and kept for 2 hours. Pour off the liquid, wash and dry.
- Soaking in ethyl alcohol. By treating the seed with vodka before planting, you can achieve rapid germination. This is due to the fact that alcohol (40%) dissolves essential oils well and disinfects the seed.
- Vernalization. Dry planting material is poured into a bag and buried in damp soil to a depth of 10-15 cm two weeks before sowing. Before planting, dry on paper until scattering.
Healthy dill sprouts should be green with no brown spots or whitish bloom. If you notice a change in color, then it is likely that the plant is affected by a disease.
Having provided the conditions for growth, you can get the spice at home.
- At a soil temperature of +20 ° C, seedlings appear 4-5 days after sowing.
- If the soil in the open field has warmed up to + 5 ° C, then the sprouts will come out in 22-24 days.
- At an earth temperature of +12 ° C - in 10-14 days.
To get fragrant greens faster, it is advisable to sow them indoors in a heated nutrient substrate.
Why is there poor germination and what can be done?
The reasons can be different:
- acidic soil;
- poor quality seeds;
- improper preparation of planting material;
- lack of lighting;
- oversupply of fertilizers.
Always pay for the expiration date of the seeds indicated on the packaging!
The seeds are embedded in the soil no deeper than 2 cm, otherwise it will be difficult for the young stem to break through. If you performed the procedure to accelerate germination, but the sprouts did not appear in the expected period, then check if the soil and its temperature are dry. There is no need to despair, wait 2-3 days, if the seedlings have not hatched, then renew the sowing.
Diseases and pests
Dangerous diseases of dill:
- powdery mildew - whitish bloom on the ground part of the plant;
- phomosis - brown spots on stems, leaves and umbrellas;
- rust - yellow-brown spots on the underside of leaves and stems;
- fusarium - chlorotic spots, cause lodging of seedlings.
Pests - various insects:
- umbrella blind;
- carrot aphids and flies;
- Italian bugs and others.
If you want dill to grow well, follow these practical tips and tricks. Prepare soil suitable for dill, process the seeds, make sure they are not expired. Find a well-lit area. Don't forget to plant shallow! Plant it boldly, everything will work out!