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The method of planting carrots in the Ural region is traditional, as for any northern latitudes of Russia. Subject to the agricultural technology of growing a root crop, it is quite easy to get a good harvest.
In the article, we will analyze in detail how to plant carrots, taking into account the peculiarities of the climate, consider a table of vegetable varieties for growing in this region by planting dates. We will also find out what are the differences when preparing, planting, growing a vegetable and learn how to deal with pests and when this root crop is planted.
Features of the climate in the region
The specificity of vegetable growing in the Urals is due to the geographical features of the area. The length of the Ural Mountains exceeds 2000 km. The climate in different areas differs significantly from each other. A characteristic feature of the region is:
- frequent sudden changes in weather;
- unexpected onset of frost;
- chaotic distribution of precipitation throughout the summer cottage.
Tables of vegetable varieties for cultivation with planting dates
Almost all local varieties grow well in the Uralsbut the Southern region is considered the most favorable for carrots. Here varieties suitable for Central Russia take root well. For the server part of the Urals, it is worth choosing varieties that are resistant to cold and bad weather.
Early varieties of carrots are most suitable for fresh consumption. The best results were shown
- Beligane White;
- Coloring F14;
- Victoria F.
The average ripening period of an early harvest is 80-90 days. The fruits are juicy, with a thin skin. They do not tolerate long-term storage.
The expected ripening period of medium carrot varieties in the Ural climate is 95-115 days. The fruits are suitable for fresh consumption, processing and storage in the first half of winter. For landing, you should choose:
- Altai shortened;
- Red giant;
- Nantes 4;
- Vitamin 6;
- Callisto F1.
Varieties with a late planting period tolerate winter storage well., differ in thick skin, dense pulp. The fruits are adapted to local climatic conditions, the duration of the growing season is 120-130 days.
The best varieties for planting are:
- Autumn Queen;
- Shantane 246;
- Totem F1;
- Tinga F1;
- Losinoostrovskaya 13.
Differences in cultivation
Winters in the Urals are predominantly harsh, which dictates certain conditions for disembarking, leaving and collecting. To obtain a rich harvest of carrots, it is worth considering some features.
The main indicator of the beginning of sowing carrots:
- soil temperature;
- the intensity of illumination of the selected area during daylight hours.
Seeds are planted in open ground only when a stable frost-free period has been established. The optimal time for planting carrots in the Urals is late April-early May. During this period, the surface layer of the earth warms up to a temperature of + 10-12 ° С during the day and + 5-8 ° С at night.
In the southern territories of the region, carrots are planted from mid to late April., in the middle of the area - from late April to early May. In the Northern Urals, the time is extended until the end of May, planting seeds on a film is permissible.
Correct pre-sowing work will significantly accelerate the friendly germination of seedlings in the limited conditions of the Ural summer. It is worth paying special attention to preparation.
To plant carrots, you need a pointed hoe (hoe) and a rake with a blade width of 30-40 cm with rounded teeth. For sowing in the northern regions of the country, it is worth preparing a non-woven material to protect the soil.
There are several proven ways to shorten the germination period of carrot seeds:
- Warming up... The seeds are immersed in hot water (temperature + 50 ° C) for 15-20 minutes and transferred to a container with cold water for 2 minutes to increase resistance to diseases and pests.
- Soak... The seed is soaked for a day in a solution of sodium humate, 1 tbsp. l. for 1 liter of water or 1 tbsp. spoon of wood ash. For additional stimulation of growth, it is customary to use "Epin", "Zircon", "Germination".
- Bubbling... The seeds are placed in a jar of warm water for a day and the aquarium compressor is immersed. During this time, the seed actively circulates in the oxygen container. Next, the seeds are placed between layers of damp cloth and placed in the refrigerator on the bottom shelf for 3-5 days. For the convenience of planting, the seeds are dried on the day of direct sowing.
In order to reduce the amount of seeds used, it is recommended to buy coated material for sowing in the ground. These seeds take longer to germinate and require abundant watering in the first week after planting. The advantage of this method of material preparation is a higher germination rate and additional convenience when planting.
The best soils for planting carrots are sandy loam and loam., which allow moisture and air to pass well to the roots, warm up quickly, and are easy to handle. Preliminary autumn preparation of the land for planting carrots consists in digging to a depth of at least 15-20 cm and collecting rhizomes of perennial weeds.
Growing green manures in autumn and then digging them into the soil enriches the soil with natural nutrients. In the spring, such a site is dug up again to increase the access of oxygen.
Soil preparation for planting has a number of distinctive features over other root crops. The vegetable categorically does not tolerate feeding with fresh manure. For land enrichment, it is preferable to use:
- 10 g of urea, 10 g of potassium chloride, 30 g of superphosphate per 1 square meter of the bed;
- mature compost for lean soil and sand for heavy clay;
- lime to reduce acidity in excess of the norm.
The best predecessors for planting carrots are:
It is not recommended to sow carrots next to the closest relative of dill, the plants do not tolerate the immediate neighborhood. Well-lit and warmed areas are best suited for planting root crops.
The sowing depth of seeds depends on the type of soil on the site. On heavy soils, the material is buried by 1-1.5 cm, on light soils - by 2 cm. The recommended distance between the rows reaches 20 cm. After planting, the seeds are covered with earth and watered, depending on the initial degree of soil moisture.
Immediately after planting, the beds are moistened at intervals of 2 times a week. With the appearance of the first shoots, watering is reduced to 1 time in 7 days, but the amount of water is increased.
In dry summers, it is recommended to mulch the land immediately after watering. Excessive soil moisture should be avoided. A large amount of moisture in the ground leads to cracking and damage to the fruit.
In addition to traditional weed control, regular thinning is an important step in carrot cultivation. The primary removal of weak shoots is carried out after 1 cm in the phase of two true leaves.
Removal of excess shoots is carried out according to the principle of the grade of the root crop... For long and thin fruits, leave a gap between the shoots of 3-5 cm, for short and wide 5-8 cm. Twice a season, the plants are fed using nitroammofoska.
The first time the fertilizer is applied one month after germination, the second time three weeks later.
The general rules for caring for carrots when grown outdoors are described in a separate material.
Medium and early varieties are harvested in mid to late August. Late storage varieties are removed from the soil in late September-mid-October. The fruits are dug up in dry weather and dried on the surface for 1-3 days. Periods with a waning moon are considered favorable. Store at a temperature of + 1-3 ° C.
More nuances about how many times in life carrots bear fruit, when to collect root crops from the beds, depending on the climatic zone, how to remove tops, as well as other important points of harvesting and storing crops, can be found in another article.
Disease and pest control
Carrot fly, powdery mildew and wireworm are the most common in the Urals region. Regular thinning, removal of weeds and joint planting with onions will help prevent the appearance of diseases and pests on root crops (what major diseases and pests can affect carrots is written separately). To combat insects, drugs are used:
- Shar Pei;
In the Urals, carrots should be sown in accordance with the weather conditions of the territory of residence. In the southern region, with a predicted warm winter, it is worth experimenting with planting seeds in winter. In any case, the plant will respond to regular care with a good harvest of fruits with a lot of carotene and other nutrients.