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Growing carrots is a rather laborious undertaking, since it implies careful adherence to agricultural techniques. To get a good harvest, it is important to prepare the soil in advance, process and harden the seeds, choose the most successful time for planting, not be mistaken with the choice of variety, and provide painstaking care for young shoots.
Mistakes at each stage can lead to a decrease in the yield or a deterioration in its quality. In the article you can read recommendations for sowing and growing carrots, as well as after which culture it is better to plant it.
Advantages and disadvantages
One of the main advantages of planting carrots in the spring is the possibility of sowing early varieties, which will be ready for use in the middle of summer. In addition, it is only in spring that late varieties can be planted.
The disadvantages include the need to strictly follow the recommendations for optimal weather conditions for landing. If suddenly, due to the vagaries of the weather, unexpected frosts or a sharp cold snap come, the seeds can either slow down their growth or even die. However, this can be avoided by using film or covering material.
Different regions have their own set of varieties, which is most preferable for a given climatic zone with its special weather conditions. Some varieties are versatile and suitable for growing in several regions at once:
|Ripening varieties||Middle lane||Siberia||Ural|
When to plant?
In the middle lane, the earliest time when you can start planting carrots falls on April 20-30. During this period, early ripening varieties are planted, which can be eaten fresh by mid-July, as well as winter harvesting.
Can carrots be planted at the end of May? If you plant carrots in late May or early June, preference should be given to mid-season and late varieties - the resulting crop will go for long-term storage for consumption in winter (when to plant carrots and is it possible in July or June?).
In other regions, the first spring sowing of carrots begins a little later - in the Urals, this should be done not earlier than the first days of May, and in Siberia - from May 10.
About what determines the time of sowing carrots in the spring and when it is better to plant them is described here.
Step by step instructions: how to plant correctly?
For planting carrots, both home-made devices and industrial units are used.... The simplest devices are considered to be a special syringe, seeder and roller. The principle of their action is the same - seeds are laid inside, which, by pressing, push the seed into a pre-made groove. Such attachments are suitable for small cultivated areas.
Also, during proper planting, you cannot do without a rake or a hoe to make grooves. When it comes to a larger sowing area, complex models and devices are used that are designed for such an application.
- Before planting, first of all, you need to weed out unsuitable seeds. To do this, fill them with warm water and leave for 10 hours. Good seeds will sink to the bottom, and bad ones will float.
- Then, for better seed germination, during preparation, you need to rinse essential oils from the seeds. For this purpose, the seeds are placed in a gauze bag and placed in hot water (45-50 degrees) for 20-30 minutes. The bag is shaken periodically to rinse the seeds better. After that, the seeds are washed again in cold water and laid out on a clean, dry cloth to dry.
- Two weeks before planting, you need to soak the seeds for two hours in water, then put them on a damp cloth and cover them with another piece of damp cloth. The soaked seeds are left at room temperature, mixed periodically, moisture is added if the fabric is dry.
- Once the seeds have swollen and started to germinate, they are placed in a refrigerator for 10 days for hardening. After that, the seeds are ready for planting.
2-3 weeks before planting, mineral fertilizers can be applied to the soil... Immediately before planting, the future bed must be watered, loosened, make sure that there are no stones and lumps left in the ground, sprinkle with ash.
Microclimate for growing
Carrots can be planted when the soil has warmed up to 8-9 ° C, and the daytime temperature is around 14-16 ° C. Such temperature norms in the middle lane are typical for the second half of April. Carrots love a well-lit place, so you need to choose a site where the sun is constantly shining.
After which is it better to plant carrots? Carrots feel best in the beds where they grew:
You cannot plant carrots in the same place twice. Planting green manure is beneficial for the soil, which, after regrowing during digging, is buried in the ground - this helps to increase the humus content in the soil.
How to sow seeds correctly and to what depth are they planted?
- Before sowing the seeds, it is better to prepare the soil in the fall - the site is dug up, after adding humus and wood ash. It is not recommended to use fresh manure, nitrogen fertilizers should be applied with caution, since an excess of nitrogen during the summer period will affect a decrease in the keeping quality of the crop.
- The grooves for planting seeds are made no more than 3 cm deep at a distance of 20-30 cm from each other.
- The furrows are shed with water, the soil is slightly pressed down so that the soil is compacted, and the seeds are planted.
- Then the grooves are leveled with earth and covered with a film so that the first shoots appear faster.
- As soon as the first shoots emerge, the film is removed.
The seedling method of planting carrots is practiced by gardeners, but it is less popular than planting seeds. This is due to the fact that transplanting seedlings is more labor-intensive, carrots from seedlings suffer more from lateral shoots and often grow less in weight and size, and are stored worse.
However, this method also has advantages:
- the terms of obtaining the first harvest are significantly reduced;
- no need to thin out the beds;
- carrot fly overcomes such plantings less;
- easier to control weeds.
IN depending on the type of carrot, the first sprouts appear on the 7-20th day after landing. They need to be allowed to grow for 2-3 weeks, and then they can be transplanted into open ground.
Thus, to start sowing seeds for seedlings:
- early varieties possible 3-4 weeks before planting in the ground;
- mid-season varieties - in 4-5 weeks;
- late - in 5-6 weeks.
Soil for seedlings can be purchased or prepared independently in the fall (for example, a mixture of peat, sand and ash in a ratio of 10: 5: 0.1). The thickness of the soil in the planting container must be at least 15 cm.
- The seeds are planted at a depth of 2 cm at a distance of 3 cm from each other.
- Since carrots love moisture, abundant watering is needed at first. As soon as the first shoots have appeared, the frequency of watering is reduced to two times a week, and the seedlings are taken out to the balcony or garden in a sunny place for hardening and airing.
- After the third leaf has grown, you can feed the seedlings with a ready-made mixture or prepare fertilizer yourself (dilute 12 g of ammonium nitrate, 15 g of superphosphate and 15 g of potassium sulfate in 5 liters of water).
- As soon as the fourth leaf has appeared, the seedlings are ready to be transplanted into the ground. First, the seedlings must be well watered in order to transplant each seedling along with a lump of earth.
When planting with seeds, there are several ways. The easiest and fastest way is to mark the grooves and place the seeds in them as evenly as possible. With this method of planting, thinning is inevitable.
Therefore, some gardeners practice a little more laborious planting methods, which in the future allow you to avoid thinning:
- The first method involves the use of a homemade paste based on potato starch (3 tablespoons / 1 liter of water). 4-6 g of seeds and 4-5 g of fertilizers are added to the resulting liquid (Agricola, Sudarushka or other fertilizers for vegetables are suitable). The resulting solution is poured into a container with a dispenser and slowly poured into the beds, which are then covered with soil and compacted.
- In the second method, one part of the seeds is mixed with ten parts of coarse sand and one part of fertilizer. The resulting mixture is distributed into the grooves.
- Some gardeners use purchased or homemade tapes on which seeds are glued at a distance of 4-5 cm from each other.
- You can also use the so-called marker (it can be a long stick with teeth cut or attached to the edge) - by pressing it on the soil, there will be depressions in the bed in which the seeds are placed.
Primary, immediately after sown
- Before the first shoots of carrots appear, abundant watering is required - twice a week, four liters per one meter of the garden.
- As soon as the first shoots have appeared (this usually happens 2 weeks after planting), you need to do the first thinning (if the seeds were planted in the most usual way). Do not delay and wait for the first edible roots to appear - by this time, thinning will be done late, the quality of the crop will already decrease. The distance between the shoots is about 4 cm.
- At the same time, they begin to fight against weeds.
- After thinning, be sure to water the beds abundantly.
- Some time after the first thinning, the turn of the second thinning comes. This time, it is worth leaving a distance of at least 8 cm.If a variety with large fruits is planted, then the distance can be increased to 15 cm.
- Watering is gradually reduced to once a week. The approximate consumption will be one bucket per square meter of the garden.
- Weeding remains a constant part of carrot care.
- It is also recommended to loosen the soil between the rows and around the shoots once a week - this will saturate the soil with oxygen, as well as increase its ability to pass moisture. Thanks to this, carrots will grow faster, and in the future it will be easier to harvest.
- Approximately a month after the appearance of the first shoots, top dressing can be applied - 1 tbsp. l. Stir nitrophoska or nitroammophoska in 10 liters of water, and water the sprouts at the rate of 5 liters per 1 sq. m. After three weeks, you can repeat the feeding - the solution is prepared according to the same recipe, however, increase the consumption to 8 liters per 1 sq. m.
- We must not forget about the fight against the main pest of carrots - the carrot fly, which begins to lay eggs in the ground in the spring. As one of the methods of struggle, planting onions next to carrots is used, the smell of which scares away the fly.
After each thinning, you should immediately remove the torn tops, otherwise the left tops will attract a fly. If, nevertheless, it was not possible to avoid infection, you can prepare a mixture of ash and tobacco, and sprinkle this powder on the aisles.
The carrot fly does not like the smell of red ground pepper. You can use purchased insecticides - Actellik or Intavir are suitable for this.
Problems and ways to solve them
- If you do not guess with the most favorable days for planting carrots (unexpected frosts, cold snap), there is a threat to the entire future harvest. However, the use of a film or covering material can help solve this problem.
- Also, during spring planting, all gardeners are faced with the active growth of weeds, which at the initial stage can clog young shoots of carrots.
- To make it easier to identify the carrots, you can plant radishes, lettuce or spinach in each row along with the carrots. They sprout faster and make it easier to determine where the crop is growing and where the weed is.
- And, finally, an infestation of a carrot fly can become a headache for gardeners, in the fight against which industrial insecticides, and pollination with tobacco with ash, and planting onions in neighboring beds are suitable.
Despite the fact that the autumn planting of carrots is popular among gardeners, nevertheless, most of them choose the spring planting in order to be able to grow early varieties for consumption in the middle of summer, and later ones for storage in winter.
As with any other culture planting and growing carrots has its own characteristics, subtleties, difficulties... Knowing them, you can achieve excellent results in growing this root crop on your site.
We offer you to watch a video about the nuances of the correct sowing of carrots in open ground: