We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
Building a spacious greenhouse is an expensive pleasure, and few gardeners will allow themselves separate structures for different vegetable crops. Quite often, it becomes necessary to grow crops together with different needs.
Many novice gardeners are wondering if it is possible to create such conditions and microclimate so that cucumbers and tomatoes feel comfortable in the same room. We will consider all the subtleties and nuances of planting two crops in one greenhouse in this article.
Can crops be grown together in a greenhouse?
Is it worth it?
Tomatoes and cucumbers are diverse crops, so when asked if these plants can be planted side by side, the answer is yes, but this will entail certain difficulties.
Since the frequency of watering, the humidity of the air, the degree of illumination, the amount of dressings for each of the plants are different, you will have to find a way to create conditions for each of them. In an inappropriate microclimate, plants are more likely to get sick and wither, therefore the main difficulty is the combination of different growing conditions.
Gardeners who count on particularly high yields should not plant cucumbers and tomatoes together. Those who are carried away by the process itself, and not the weight of the crop in kilograms, it is quite possible to do this troublesome, but interesting business.
Advantages and disadvantages
When these cultures are adjacent, the following negative nuances are distinguished:
- plants negatively affect each other;
- have significant differences in agricultural technology;
- the creation of different climatic conditions is required.
Among the positive points, one can single out the fact that co-location significantly saves space, this is a rational way to get different vegetables from a unit of area. In addition, different crops prevent soil depletion unilaterally, which has a positive effect on the palatability of the fruit. The most compelling argument is that it is economically profitable for a gardener to build just one greenhouse.
What should be the common greenhouse?
To increase the chances of a successful neighborhood, the greenhouse is being built capital and spacious. This will not only increase the distance between the bushes, but also provide zoning or separation to create the most suitable conditions for cucumbers and tomatoes.
For thermophilic tomatoes, the south side of the greenhouse is taken away. The north side is suitable for cucumbers, since the leaves of the plant wither from the direct rays of the sun. If the greenhouse is located next to another building, then it is better to place the cucumbers in the part where the shadow from the neighboring building falls.
The optimum temperature for active growth of tomatoes is 21-26⁰Сalthough this vegetable can handle hotter conditions well. He also needs regular ventilation and does not need frequent watering.
Cucumbers, on the other hand, require constant moisture and high humidity in the room. They practically do not need airing, the temperature for growth and ovary is 19-23⁰С.
But with a strong cold snap at night, both plants suffer (below 18⁰С)... In addition, the necessary moisture for cucumbers has a detrimental effect on the pollination process of tomatoes, the pollen sticks together, and if the temperature exceeds 30⁰c, the flowers can generally crumble. A humid microclimate leads to the development of fungal diseases in tomatoes.
Be sure to keep the distance between cultures. It is believed that space helps to average humidity and temperature, then vegetables will be able to tolerate the neighborhood more easily. Tomatoes are planted under the vents or in the center of the greenhouse, and cucumbers are farther from the door and vents, and closer to the walls of the greenhouse (zoning).
Separation is more effective when a transverse partition is installed to isolate the vegetables. Of course, you will have to provide two entrances, but as a result, each plant will receive exactly the care and microclimate that it needs. To get the best result and grow an excellent harvest of both tomatoes and cucumbers, it is worth using a common polycarbonate greenhouse for joint planting and cultivation - it is more convenient to plant crops in them, and the plants are warmer there.
If the factory design does not contain internal partitions, they are arranged independently from dense polyethylene or plexiglass. Such partitions will help keep the microclimate different and organize different watering.
Special varieties for co-cultivation
Seed selection is extremely important. From the side of tomatoes, the main criteria are resistance to late blight and a humid microclimate. Agronomists bred hybrid varieties that, having a strong immunity, tolerate high humidity quite well.
Among the resistant tomatoes, varieties are distinguished:
- De Barao Black;
- Union 8;
- Tsar Peter;
- La la fa;
- New Year;
As for cucumbers, cold-resistant and temperature-resistant species are chosen here. Since the inappropriate temperature regime causes a whole range of diseases, which easily pass to neighboring tomatoes.
Cucumber hybrids can easily tolerate regular ventilation, so necessary for tomatoes, and are resistant to many diseases.
For joint growth, varieties are chosen:
- Thumb Boy;
Soil preparation begins in the fall, manure, humus, and tops are laid in the beds. Complex fertilizers are added. From above everything is covered with a layer of earth, and by the spring fertile soil for vegetables will be ready. A few weeks before planting, the ground in the greenhouse is warmed up, for this it is covered with a black film and the door is tightly closed.
Disinfection takes an important place in soil preparation, the most affordable option is to treat the soil with a solution of potassium permanganate.
Of course, for planting seedlings, some use a purchased substrate, but you can also prepare the following composition:
- They take peat as a basis, add humus, sawdust, sand in a ratio of 1: 1: 0.5.
- Then everything is dug up and enriched with double superphosphate (2 teaspoons) and wood ash (0.5 kg).
Before planting, the soil is fertilized with urea, potassium sulfate and potassium magnesium.
How to plant: step by step instructions
It is difficult to say exactly when to plant the plants in the greenhouse. It depends on the climatic conditions of the area, soil temperature, the growing season of the crop variety. Cucumbers are more cold-resistant, and they are planted in the greenhouse from the beginning of April to the end of May, for tomatoes the planting dates are from the beginning of May to the beginning of June. The air temperature should not be lower than 15 ° C, the same applies to the ground.
- Before sowing the seeds, they are sorted out and shriveled and dark ones are removed.
- In order to instill resistance to cold snaps in plants, the sowing mass is hardened (placed in the cold for several days).
- They are also treated with nutrients and disinfected with a manganese solution (1%).
- To speed up the germination of seeds, they are soaked. It is recommended not to throw them into water, but to moisten the gauze and wrap the seeds in it. If the seed is of good quality, they will hatch within 5 days.
- Then they are planted in prepared containers (cups or boxes). To do this, moisten the earth, lay out the seeds, cover them with a thin layer of substrate (0.5-1 cm).
- To prevent evaporation of the liquid and accelerate the emergence of seedlings, the container with seeds is covered with foil.
- After the appearance of 4-5 true leaves, the seedlings are transplanted into the ground.
Seedlings must be thinned out and divedThis is done to remove weak and unhealthy shoots and to provide strong shoots with room for normal growth and development. In cramped conditions, the shoots will be weak and elongated.
Carrying out a pick, take two seedlings and transplant them to a prepared place, taking care not to damage the roots. When transplanting into the ground, holes and rows are prepared in advance. Seedlings are transplanted directly with a lump of earth on the root and into moist soil. The earth around the hole is lightly tamped and watered.
The seedling method is used for planting thermophilic tomatoes, they tolerate transplanting well and grow almost immediately. For cucumbers, it is best to sow the seeds in the ground right away.
Cucumber seedlings are difficult to transplant, the roots are very weak and sensitive, therefore, when using the seedling method, it is better to take a container without a bottom, or one that can be planted with the sprout (paper cup). When planting, dry seeds are placed in the holes in the prepared soil, no more than 4-5 seeds per square meter, or with a distance between the seeds of about 40 cm.
As for the features of the joint cultivation of cucumbers and tomatoes, they include:
- Control of humidity and temperature levels - the best options are 70% humidity and 25⁰С.
- Sufficient width of aisles and planting crops in opposite beds, with this method of separation, you can plant tall varieties of tomatoes.
- A bed of greenery in a common greenhouse will help maintain the desired humidity.
- It is much easier to maintain different conditions with a partition.
Below you can see how the crops are located in the common greenhouse after they have been planted:
How to take care of it properly?
Watering and fertilizing
Before flowering, cucumbers are watered every five days, when they bloom - two or three times a week, in hot weather - every other day, and not with cold, but with settled warm water. Top dressing is applied throughout the life of the plant, approximately 1 time in 7-10 days (the least amount of fertilizer per season is 5-6 times). Use mineral fertilizers, apply according to the instructions on the package.
Tomatoes are watered at the root, about once a week, focusing on the drying of the top layer of the soil, just as in the case of cucumbers, the water is taken warm. Top dressing should be nitrogenous, for this they use manure and chicken droppings, superphosphate and ash. Urea is also suitable. Fertilizers are applied after watering every 10 days.
Pruning and pinching, pinching
To increase the yield and improve the taste of cucumbers, pinching and pinching are done. Up to half a meter, all lateral processes are removed, above - the lateral shoots are pinched after the first leaf, at a height of 1.5 meters - the pinching is done after the second leaf. It turns out that the closer to the root, the shorter the lateral shoots.
They begin to gooseberry after the appearance of 4 leaves on the stem. All the extra flowers and processes are sprinkled until the eleventh leaf appears, then pinch the top.
Tomatoes also need pinching; for this, all side shoots are removed, leaving the main stem. Pinching the top is done after the seventh fruit cluster. For undersized tomatoes, you can leave 2-3 main stems.
Cucumber vines are tied up every week. To do this, install special props up to one and a half meters high, pull the net or twine. As it grows, the stem is guided and wrapped around the twine, and then placed on top.
The garter of tomatoes is carried out a week after planting. It is better to use an individual garter to separate stakes every 15 cm.
Caring for different cultures also has its own characteristics:
- It is necessary to pinch and shape the cucumber vines in a timely manner so that they do not shade and stun the tomatoes.
- When watering, make sure that there is no waterlogged soil. To prevent water from flowing from a cucumber garden to a tomato one, partitions are made not only on the surface, metal, wooden or plastic plates are dug directly into the ground.
- To retain moisture at the roots of cucumbers without additional watering, gardeners use a hydrogel. It absorbs a fairly large amount of liquid and nutrients, and then gradually releases the contents to the soil.
- Since tomatoes suffer from late blight due to high humidity, varieties that are resistant to this scourge are chosen.
When fertilizing plants, it should be remembered that nitrogen-containing dressings are good for cucumbers throughout the season, and they are suitable for tomatoes only at an early stage of growth. After budding, tomatoes need potassium and phosphorus-containing fertilizers.
Diseases and pests: which ones and how to fight?
In multicultural greenhouses, diseases are transmitted by pests such as whitefly, tips, spider mites. Therefore, any disease, affecting one culture, quickly passes to another. Common diseases in greenhouses are:
- Anthracnose - Bordeaux mixture, copper oxychloride, sulfur preparations are suitable for the fight.
- Powdery mildew - plants are sprayed with a mixture of chalk and colloidal sulfur, reducing the amount of nitrogenous fertilizers.
- Root rot - if signs of a disease are found, the plants are watered with Previkur.
- Late blight - the tops are treated with an ash solution and phytosporin.
- Septoria - plants are sprayed with soapy water with the addition of copper oxychloride.
In order to prevent the appearance of pests and diseases, preventive measures are used:
- Disinfect seeds and soil before planting.
- Do not allow waterlogging, which leads to the development of fungal infections.
- Fertilize according to the rules and treat the plants with fungicides.
- It is advisable to remove diseased plants from the greenhouse to avoid spreading.
Cultivating these different crops together is challenging. But if you adhere to the rules of care and ensure the optimal microclimate, it is quite possible to get a good harvest.
Video review of planting tomatoes and cucumbers in one greenhouse: