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Secrets of a rich harvest: the nuances of planting tomatoes in open ground and the features of caring for them

Secrets of a rich harvest: the nuances of planting tomatoes in open ground and the features of caring for them


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Planting tomatoes in open ground is one of the important tasks for the gardener. The future harvest depends on the correctly selected plot, the method and scheme of planting, the necessary "neighbors" and predecessors of tomatoes.

Planting tomatoes in open ground has certain features, without the knowledge of which it is difficult to grow a good harvest.

This article describes in detail the secrets of a rich harvest: the nuances of planting tomatoes in open ground and the features of caring for them.

Ways of planting a vegetable and caring for it

Preparation for sowing seedlings

The most common way to plant a tomato is to plant seedlings.... Before planting it in open ground, the seedlings should be "hardened". For this purpose, boxes with plants are taken out into the street for 15 - 20 days, where they remain for a certain time (from 2 hours to 10 hours daily).

The minimum hardening period is 3 days, but it is better to allocate more time to this stage: this will only have a beneficial effect on the adaptive abilities of young plants. 10 days before planting seedlings in open ground, watering should be reduced, and in a week and completely stopped, but on the eve of planting, young shoots are watered abundantly with water.

Seedlings should be planted very carefully so as not to damage the root system of still immature plants. A tomato is placed in the hole, previously spilled with water, its roots are carefully straightened, and all the free space is covered with earth.

The tomato is watered again, you can immediately tie it to a peg so that the fragile stem does not break from the wind. Care includes the following main points: watering, feeding, loosening the soil, hilling, forming a bush.

How and at what distance should the seeds be placed from each other?

Recently, among gardeners, a seedless method of planting tomatoes is becoming more and more popular - sowing seeds directly into open ground. Before sowing seeds, they must be treated: place in a cloth bag and immerse for 15 - 20 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate (1 g of manganese per 1 tbsp. water), then rinse with running water. You can also soak them in a growth stimulant solution for 12 hours.

The seeds are sown directly into the holes (the distance between them is 30 - 40 cm, between the rows - 60 - 70 cm): 3-4 seeds are placed in the moistened soil to a depth of 3-4 cm. The soil is compacted with the palm of your hand for better contact of the seed with the ground. When 2 true leaves appear at the seedlings, one well-developed shoot is left in the hole, all the rest are removed. Caring for such plants is identical to caring for seedlings.

What should be considered when planting in order to get a good harvest?

For the correct planting of tomatoes, consider the following:

  • Tomatoes are warm and light-loving plants; for them it is necessary to select well-lit areas, protected from wind and drafts. Also, the land should not be swampy or in the lowland: the constant accumulation of moisture will contribute to the spread of fungal diseases of plants, the occurrence of putrefactive processes in the root system of tomatoes.
  • The soil in the plots for tomatoes is usually dug twice (in autumn and spring) to saturate it with oxygen, make it friable, soft and remove weed roots. When digging, fertilizers can be added to the soil to enrich it (for example, mullein, superphosphate, potassium salt). And a week before planting seedlings, I recommend treating the soil with a solution of copper sulfate for disinfection.
  • Another rule: you cannot plant tomatoes on the same plot for two years in a row. The minimum interval in growing tomatoes in the same area should be 3-4 years.
  • Due attention must be paid to the holes in which the seedlings will be planted. Each of them should be dug to a depth of 20 - 25 cm.At the bottom of each can be placed both organic (humus, manure, ash, banana peel, eggshell, onion husk, yeast), mineral (superphosphate, magnesium sulfate), and complex preparations (Kemira Lux, Kemira Universal).
  • It must be remembered that one tomato bush occupies an average of 0.3 square meters, therefore, before sowing tomatoes for seedlings, you should calculate how many bushes can be planted on the site so as not to throw away extra seedlings.

Plants placement schemes

  1. Planting schemes for tall tomatoes.
    • Square-nesting method. With this method, plants are planted in the corners of an imaginary square, forming a kind of nest. The distance between the bushes is 50 - 60 cm, and between the squares in the transverse direction - 80 cm (in this gap there is an irrigation furrow). Such a scheme provides the convenience of processing row spacings, facilitates the process of loosening the soil and killing weeds.
    • Tape-nesting method. Another good option for placing tomatoes when planting is the ribbon-nesting method. The essence of this method consists in digging through 100 cm of tapes - trenches, along the edges of which on both sides (after 40 cm) tomato bushes are planted, one opposite the other. The distance between bushes in a row is 70 cm. This arrangement is ideal for indeterminate varieties that need a garter, as it will be easy to implement. In addition, thanks to this method, time is saved for processing plants, loosening the soil, and controlling weeds.
  2. Convenient planting of low-growing plants.
    • Tape method. To plant low-growing early ripening tomatoes in this way, it is necessary to dig a trench, the depth of which is about 30 cm, holes are dug into the trench at a distance of 30 - 40 cm from each other. The distance between the trenches is 80 cm.

      If you plant tall varieties in this way, then you should retreat from trench to trench 90 cm.This method of planting significantly saves the planting area, plants planted in this way are easy to care for due to excellent access to each bush. The irrigation process is also greatly facilitated: it is enough to throw a hose into the trench or bring the drip irrigation system.

    • Chess method. The method is in many ways similar to the tape-nesting method. A trench is also pulled out, but the bushes on its sides are dug out in a checkerboard manner: tomatoes of one row are located opposite the gaps between the tomatoes of another row. Distance between trenches - 100 cm, between bushes in a row - 30 - 40 cm, between rows - 40 - 50 cm. The main purpose of this scheme is to save space.

Neighbors and predecessors

One of the key points: planting tomatoes in open ground must be carried out taking into account the correct crop rotation.

What is better to place next to each other?

Tomato is a plant of the Solanaceae family... The same family includes crops such as potatoes, eggplant, vegetable peppers, capsicum, and tobacco. Plants belonging to the same family determines their susceptibility to the same diseases, especially their main common enemy - late blight. Therefore, planting them on adjacent sites is not recommended.

Ideal neighbors for tomatoes are onions, garlic, carrots, mint, sage, corn, radish, celery, spinach, parsley, and basil.

So, onions, garlic, radish will protect tomatoes from spider mites, aphids, earthen fleas. And flowers such as marigolds and calendula will not only act as a reliable protector of nightshade from almost all pests, but will also give the backyard a greater decorative effect. And tall corn will reliably protect thermophilic tomatoes from wind and drafts.

Tomatoes also have antagonists. Broccoli, cauliflower and white cabbage, fennel, dill will overwhelmingly affect them.

Cucumbers

The most popular crops in all household plots are tomatoes and cucumbers. However, is it possible to plant cucumbers nearby? You cannot plant them in adjacent beds. The thing is that these crops require completely different care: cucumbers love abundant watering and a high level of humidity, tomatoes prefer dry air and poor watering.

Large leaves of cucumbers evaporate a lot of moisture, abundant watering of this culture also gives additional moisture, so tomatoes begin to be heavily exposed to fungal and bacterial diseases, their flowers are not pollinated, the yield drops, and the taste becomes a little bitter.

What is permissible to cultivate after tomatoes for the next year?

The best option is to sow legumes (peas, beans) and herbs (parsley, dill, celery), which compensate for the nitrogen consumed by tomatoes in the soil. Onions and garlic planted in place of tomatoes will perfectly heal the soil, moreover, they will at the same time give a bountiful harvest.

One of the basic rules of crop rotation says: roots are planted in place of fruits and vice versa. Simply put, "roots alternate with tops." A good harvest is given by carrots, beets, radishes, radishes, planted on the site after the tomatoes. They are not afraid of diseases inherent in tomatoes, cucumbers, zucchini, cabbage.

After what can and can not be grown fruit?

In order to prevent soil depletion, it is necessary to alternate the planting of fruit crops and root crops. Tomatoes are best planted in areas that last year were set aside for turnips, carrots, beets, green onions. It is permissible if tomatoes are located in the place of cucumbers, zucchini, cabbage.

The ideal option is a preliminary sowing on a plot of land allotted for tomatoes, siderates - green fertilizers that improve the structure of the soil, enrich it with nitrogen, and inhibit the growth of weeds. Siderates include oats, mustard, buckwheat, clover, beans, lupine.

Planting tomatoes in place of other nightshades is strictly not allowed: potatoes, eggplant, pepper, physalis, tobacco. Regardless of the method of planting, plants need careful care. The vegetable grower should not forget about this, since planting a plant correctly does not mean reaping a rich harvest. Only the care of the gardener, his patience and diligence can ensure the achievement of his goal.


Watch the video: Step by Step: How To Grow Tomatoes from Seed (May 2022).


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