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Jerusalem artichoke or earthen pear is a root vegetable enriched with many useful substances, which has a rich nutritional value, but, unfortunately, is not in great demand in our country.
In total, there are about 300 varieties of this plant. Only two types of Jerusalem artichoke are grown in Russia.
In the article, we will consider in detail the chemical composition of fried, pickled, as well as raw and dried root vegetables. From the article we learn about the benefits and dangers of this vegetable.
Why is it important to know the chemical composition of a vegetable?
Each vegetable is rich in various substances. For some, they are useful, for others, on the contrary. Before using any product in large doses, you need to find out what it contains, that is, its chemical composition. This is necessary in order not to harm your body on the one hand. On the other hand, use a vegetable or fruit to improve your condition.
All this is possible only if a person is well acquainted with the presence of diseases in his body, what can be consumed and what not. And accordingly, know the chemical composition of products, which may be contraindicated for use.
More information about the chemical composition of Jerusalem artichoke, as well as the benefits and harms that it can bring to the body, we talked about here.
The chemical composition of the root crop
Jerusalem artichoke fried in vegetable oil can compete with potatoes and be a full-fledged side dish.
For 100 g of earthen pear fried in oil, there are:
- 2.5 g protein;
- 6.5 g fat;
- 11 g of carbohydrates.
Caloric content - 112.7 kcal.
When frying in oil, a small amount of cholesterol is formed in the dish.
Important. When roasting in an earthen pear, the presence of calcium, potassium, phosphorus, copper, zinc and other substances is preserved. But their number is much less than in fresh Jerusalem artichoke.
Jerusalem artichoke can be marinated with spices for a delicious, low-calorie snack. Energy value per 100 g is only 29.4 kcal.
When marinating, the amount of substances, vitamins and elements in the product decreases. So, it contains:
- proteins - 0.6 grams;
- fats - 0.1 grams;
- carbohydrates - 5.5 grams.
In reduced doses compared to fresh vegetables, the doses contain potassium, calcium, copper, B vitamins (B1, B2, B6). The increased size contains sodium and chlorine.
With a little heat treatment, Jerusalem artichoke retains useful vitamins and elements.
Application of heat treatment to Jerusalem artichoke above 50 ° reduces the content of vitamins and elements by 30 - 45%.
Medicinal decoctions are made on the basis of earthen pear, which suggests that this vegetable does not lose its usefulness.
Additives and seasonings are made from dried crushed Jerusalem artichoke, which do not lose the beneficial properties of Jerusalem artichoke, while remaining low-calorie - in 100 g 73 kcal.
You will learn about the healing properties of dried Jerusalem artichoke, as well as the rules for its use and preparation, from our separate article.
Calorie content per 100 grams and BZHU
100 g of raw Jerusalem artichoke contains KBZhU:
- proteins - 2 grams;
- fats - 0.01 grams;
- carbohydrates - 17.44 grams.
Caloric content: 73 kcal.
An important feature of the composition of Jerusalem artichoke is that the composition of proteins is represented by 16 amino acids, eight of them are not produced by the human body.
The composition of the earthen pear contains the following macro - and microelements:
- Potassium. It is necessary for the body to regulate metabolism, control water balance.
- Calcium. Due to its presence, Jerusalem artichoke removes toxins and toxins from the body, as well as excess water.
- Magnesium. Normalizes the digestive tract.
- Sodium. Controls normal water-salt metabolism, control of acid-base balance.
- Silicon. Affects hemoglobin levels. To get the daily share of this element, you need to eat 50 g of Jerusalem artichoke.
- Copper. Participates in providing energy metabolism.
- Iron. By the amount of this element, Jerusalem artichoke is ahead of potatoes, beets and carrots.
Also Jerusalem artichoke contains pectin, which lowers cholesterol levels in the body, which improves metabolism, normalizes intestinal motility.
Reference. Jerusalem artichoke is not able to accumulate heavy metals. Therefore, you can eat it, even if it is grown in an area with poor ecology.
An earthen pear has no contraindications, except for individual intolerance. One of the reasons for this is the composition of Jerusalem artichoke vitamins:
- Vitamin C. Gives strength and elasticity to the walls of blood vessels, reduces the possibility of bleeding, strengthens the immune system.
- Thiamin. 100 g of Jerusalem artichoke contains 0.20 mg of vitamin B1, which is 13% of the daily intake of this vitamin.
- Riboflavin. 100 g of earthen pear accounts for 0.06 mg of vitamin B2 - This is 3% of the daily value.
- Folic acid. At first glance, 100 g of a tuber contains very little of this vitamin - only 13 μg, but this part is 3% of the daily requirement for human consumption.
- Pyridoxine. 100 g of Jerusalem artichoke - 0.08 mg of vitamin B6, which is 4% of the daily value.
- Pantothenic Acid. Vitamin B3 is 0.4 mg from one hundred grams of Jerusalem artichoke. And this is 8% of the required intake of this vitamin per day.
Dietary fiber is also part of the vegetable. They affect the removal of toxins and harmful substances from the body. It also includes inulin, a natural analogue of insulin. It lowers the amount of sugar in the blood, which makes the earthen pear desirable for diabetics.
Vegetable tubers are rich in fiber, which is involved in cleansing the intestines from harmful substances, thereby preventing the onset of dysbiosis.
Frequent consumption of unprocessed Jerusalem artichoke can lead to flatulence. Therefore, for people prone to this, it is better to heat the product.
Also This element-rich product contains organic polyoxyacids: lemon, apple, malonic, amber, fumaric. They make up 6 - 8% of the dry Jerusalem artichoke mass.
How many calories and BJU are in dishes made from it?
- Candied fruit. On average, 100 g of the product contains 8 g of proteins, 0.1 g of fat and 54.3 g of carbohydrates. Energy value - 232 kcal.
- Jam. The calorie content of the product is 274 kcal. The composition includes 1.2 g of proteins, 0.1 g of fat, 66.5 g of carbohydrates.
- Syrup. The usefulness of this product is determined not by its glucose content, but by its fructose content. So, its amount in 100 g - 69.5 g, and fats and proteins - 0. Energy value of 100 g - 267 kcal.
- Vegetable salad with Jerusalem artichoke. In addition to the earthen pear, the composition includes radishes, green onions, cheese and butter. The calorie content of this salad is 100.7 kcal. Proteins - 3.6 g, fats - 6.1 g, carbohydrates - 7.9 g. This amount is calculated per 100 g of the product.
- Eliminates toxins and toxins from the body.
- Reduces cholesterol levels.
- Improves metabolism and the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Reduces blood sugar levels.
- Strengthening the immune system.
- Increase in the level of hemoglobin in the blood.
There are no contraindications to the use of Jerusalem artichoke, except for individual intolerance. Therefore, at the beginning, it must be consumed in small doses in order to see the reaction of your body.
Jerusalem artichoke is one of the few products that contains many vitamins and nutrients, while practically having no contraindications. Therefore, its inclusion in the diet enables a person to enrich his body with the necessary substances.