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Garlic is a healthy crop cultivated by many homeowners. But few at the same time know all the features of this process. Understanding these details allows you to increase the yield of winter garlic and improve its quality.
Consider in the article when and how to properly plant garlic in the fall in the country or in the garden, to what depth you need to close up other details of planting so that it is large and tasty. And also we will give some useful tips that will definitely help you achieve the desired harvest.
Why this question arises
So, why the question arises, why plant garlic in the autumn before winter? Although most gardeners use winter garlic varieties, few can clearly explain its benefits. The main reasons why it is more convenient to plant a winter garlic variety are as follows:
- Less hassle in spring... At a time when most crops are planted, wasting time on garlic is irrational.
- Shorter growing season... If we compare the time from the appearance of the first shoots to harvesting, then it is not much different. But winter garlic has an advantage in planting - while spring garlic will only be planted in the ground and does not even begin to grow, winter garlic will already throw out the first leaves. Due to this, it gives a harvest 3 - 5 weeks earlier than spring.
Winter garlic can be planted at their summer cottage and reduce spring hassles, while getting a larger harvest.
What is the difference from spring planting?
Despite the fact that winter and spring garlic are practically the same crop, there are differences in planting. Winter garlic is planted deeper than spring garlic, planting in several tiers is allowed... At the same time, the planting scheme for winter varieties can be more frequent than spring varieties, this practically does not affect the harvest.
Less soil requirements - if a delay in spring due to low temperatures can become critical and affect the harvest of garlic, then early or late planting does not have such an effect (when to plant garlic in spring?). In any case, the clove will take root and sprout quickly in the spring, minimizing miscalculation.
How to plant winter garlic in spring is written here, and from this article you will learn how to plant spring garlic in spring.
Features depending on the climatic zone
Depending on the climatic zone and local local conditions, the method and scheme of planting differ... There are no unequivocal recommendations, depending on the current year, local temperature features, the depth and planting pattern may differ slightly.
In the zone of temperate continental climate - the Moscow region and the middle zone of Russia, the landing pattern should be 20 to 25 or less often. The depth should be more than 5 cm, so that during frosts after thaws there is no freezing of the seed. Optimal planting of garlic to a depth of 7-9 cm and additional mulching for the winter.
In the southern part of Russia, it is possible to plant at a shallower depth and more often... Landing is allowed according to the scheme 20 by 20 or 20 by 15 in a checkerboard pattern. With regular mulching, it can be planted to a depth of 3-5 cm, without mulching, it is advisable to plant at a depth of 10-15 cm. So the plants will have enough moisture to form a head.
Choosing a winter variety
Before going to the market in search of planting material, you must learn to distinguish between spring and winter varieties. It is not uncommon for unscrupulous sellers to pass off spring garlic as winter garlic and vice versa.
Winter garlic is characterized by the following symptoms:
- The central stem is pronounced.
- The shape of the cloves and their arrangement resembles orange slices. Winter garlic has only one row of cloves.
- The shell of the teeth is hard and dry enough.
Winter garlic differs in all respects:
- No pronounced stem, it may be off-center.
- Multiplicity of teeth... Their shape is chaotic; they can be arranged in several rows.
- Soft shell of teeth... In structure, it looks more like onion peel than a hard shell.
If you look at the garlic in the garden, then the winter varieties can be easily identified by the arrow. Spring garlic does not throw it away, multiplying only by cloves.
The table shows varieties suitable for almost any region of Russia.
|Variety name||Ripening period, days||Number of teeth, pcs.||Taste||Head weight, gr|
It is important to pay attention to the ripening period and correlate it with local conditions. If all varieties are suitable for the southern regions, then the further north the region, the shorter the growing season and the earlier the garlic should be.
Timing: when in autumn?
Planting dates directly depend on the climatic zone of growing winter garlic. The farther north the climatic zone is, the earlier it is necessary to plant garlic.:
- For central Russia, this is the end of August - mid-September.
- For the southern part of Russia, this is mid-September - early October.
In general, the planting time can be determined as follows - 20-25 days before stable low temperatures.
Important! Consistently low is less than +5 during the day and less than 0 at night. If the year is cold, you need to plant earlier, if a warm autumn is expected, the planting dates can be slightly shifted.
Step-by-step instructions: how to plant a winter variety in open ground?
Before proceeding with the direct landing, it is necessary to prepare all the tools and materials:
- Inventory... If you plant garlic in rows at a shallow depth, you will need a hoe and a rake. If planted in rows to a great depth (7 - 9 cm), then it is worth preparing a hand plow. When planting deeper than 10 cm, it is more convenient to use a peg and a hammer. For convenience, you can draw a mark on the peg on which it will stick into the ground.
- The soil... The choice of a place for the garden is important - garlic is a demanding crop. To get a good harvest, the acidity must be neutral or low. The bed is oriented from north to south and should be raised if the groundwater is close to the surface.
The soil must be prepared 3 to 4 weeks before planting. For this, 6-10 kg of compost or 40 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium chloride per sq.m. are evenly scattered. Then the bed is dug up and neatly leveled. During the remaining time, the soil will settle and pick up enough moisture for the garlic to grow. 2 - 3 days before planting, it is necessary to scatter urea at the rate of 30 grams per square meter and spill it with water.
- Planting material... The teeth are carefully sorted and selected - the seed must be large, healthy and free from damage. To accelerate germination and better development, it is advisable to germinate seed material. Before planting, sprouted cloves must be sprayed with a 1% solution of copper sulfate, and immediately before planting, soak for 5 minutes in Fitosporin solution. Similar operations are carried out for bulbs.
When everything is ready, the soil has settled, the seed is ready and the timing allows, you can start landing:
- When choosing a location, it is necessary to pay attention to previous cultures. Garlic with potatoes and onions have similar diseases and pests, so it is not recommended to alternate them. It is optimal to plant garlic after tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbage, pumpkin or zucchini. About the crops after which garlic can be planted and what can be planted after garlic, read more here.
- Planting depth depends on climatic and local conditions and differs in different parts of Russia. Most often they are planted to a depth of 5-7 cm to protect the plant from frost and freezing. In recent years, a scheme with a different planting depth has been spreading - even rows are planted to a depth of 5-7 cm, and odd rows to a depth of 10 -15 cm. This allows you to compact the planting and get a larger crop from the same area. When planting bulbs on seeds, the depth should be 3-5 cm.
- The landing pattern also depends on climatic conditions, but to a lesser extent. Most often, garlic is planted according to the scheme of 20 cm row spacing and 15-20 cm between plants. With a multilevel draft, you can reduce the row spacing and shift the arrangement of plants in a checkerboard pattern. Bubbles for cloves can be planted according to the scheme 10 by 10 cm or 10 by 5 cm.
- The process of planting at a shallow depth is as follows: using a hoe or a small plow, grooves are cut into which the planting material is neatly placed. After laying, the row is spilled with Fitosporin and buried. When all the rows are planted, the bed is additionally leveled with a rake and mulched.
- When planting to a depth of 10 cm or more, it becomes difficult to cut grooves. Therefore, a peg and a hammer are used. The thickness of the peg is selected so that the teeth easily enter the resulting hole, but do not turn over when dropped. The peg is driven to the desired depth and carefully removed. A little Fitosporin solution is poured into the resulting hole, then the clove is lowered with the roots down, a little earth is poured into the hole, watered and filled up completely.
In the fall, no additional care is needed, the garlic will take root and freeze at the first frost. After the snow melts, it is better to remove the remains of mulch - this way the earth will warm up faster.
When the first shoots appear, the plants must be fed with mullein solution 1 to 10 at the rate of 3 liters per square meter. After 2 - 3 weeks, feeding is repeated, you can additionally add 1 tbsp. spoon of nitrophosphate on a bucket. This will accelerate the growth of green mass and the development of the plant as a whole.
After the arrow appears, the garlic must be fed with wood ash. A glass of water is dissolved for 10 liters and 1 liter is added. per sq m. This will speed up the formation of heads and increase the yield.
Important! After the arrows appear, they must be broken. At this time, the plant lays a head and forms seeds for propagation. Therefore, if you do not break out the arrows, then the power of the plant will be spent in both directions. Therefore, it is enough to leave only a part of the arrows for the formation of seeds for the next year.
Possible problems and difficulties
With careful selection of seed material, garlic practically does not get sick and gives a good harvest. But there are factors that can destroy the plantings:
- Little snow cold winter... If such a winter is expected, then immediately before the first snows, it is advisable to re-mulch the bed. The mulch will trap the snow and create an extra layer of insulation.
- High groundwater table... Garlic does not tolerate super-moist soil, the plant quickly dies. In such a situation, it is necessary to form a raised bed.
- Clay and loamy soils... If the fertile layer is thin, then it is necessary to reduce the planting depth. In loamy soil, garlic practically does not form a head.
In general, garlic is a fairly unpretentious culture. With little experience and a well-established crop rotation, it requires attention only 6 times a year: during preparation, planting, feeding and harvesting.
We suggest you watch a video about planting garlic before winter: