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Cauliflower is a storehouse of vitamins and minerals. And if earlier on personal plots it was rather rare and bore the title of a finicky culture, now more and more gardeners are engaged in growing this wonderful vegetable on their own. All you need is to understand a number of nuances when growing cauliflower, and a rich harvest will not keep you waiting.
From the article you will learn how to plant a vegetable with seeds in the ground in order to get a harvest, how cabbage grows, what to plant it with, what is the sowing technology and further care, and also whether it can be grown in a garden or a summer cottage in the open field.
How to grow a vegetable?
Cauliflower is quite a thermophilic plant... Consider this at all stages of growing, from planting seedlings to harvest. Experienced gardeners disagree on the temperature of growing cauliflower seedlings.
Some say that it needs to be hardened so that the plants get used to low night temperatures and are ready for possible cold snaps in the spring-summer period, while others argue that hypothermia of the seedlings will lead to its weakening, and in the future to arrowing or the absence of a fruit head (inflorescences ).
Both are right. It all depends on the region where this vegetable is grown. Sowing cabbage for seedlings in a greenhouse will still be optimal, then the air warmed up during the day will protect young plants from hypothermia, but will start the hardening mechanism. Adult plants thrive at temperatures between 15-25 ° C. This is the optimal range for setting and growing a cabbage head.
Everything is no less interesting with watering. Cauliflower does not tolerate drying out of the soil, since it has a superficial fibrous root system, but it also does not tolerate overflows. Excessive moisture slows down the formation of the head and impairs the functioning of the root system. It is recommended to water the plants once a week and mulch the soil.
Important! Since the root system of cauliflower is shallow, it is not recommended to loosen the soil under the plant - use mulch. This will preserve the integrity of the roots and provide optimum soil moisture.
Cauliflower loves to grow in well-lit areas, but during the period of tying the heads, attend to the shading of the plants. Then the product heads will be denser and larger. Top dressing is carried out 3 times: a week after planting in the ground and twice more with an interval of two weeks. As soon as the heads begin to tie, feeding should be stopped.
Choose the best seeds responsibly - this is the key to the future harvest. You have 2 options:
- buy from the manufacturer;
- grow yourself.
The cost of a bag of seeds ranges from 15 to 20 rubles... for cauliflower varieties of past selections and reach 70 rubles or more for exclusive novelties. It's up to you to decide, but there is always the possibility that the contents of the sachet will not correspond to the variety declared on the package. Choose only trusted seed producers with a good reputation (read the best cauliflower varieties and how to choose the right seeds here).
The second option is to grow cauliflower seeds yourself. This path has its own pitfalls:
- Provide protection against cross-pollination with other varieties.
- Do not leave hybrid varieties for seeds - new plants will not repeat the qualities of their parents.
- Plants left before the seeds ripen should be fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers at the beginning of the bud setting.
- Seed pods ripen gradually. Collect them as they turn brown and leave hanging to ripen until the halves open. Those that mature earlier are usually the best.
The shelf life of cauliflower seeds is 4-5 years, but remember that the quality of the seeds decreases every year.
Cauliflower, especially early varieties are recommended to be grown through seedlings.
When to plant cabbage for seedlings so that heads of cabbage are tied? So, in order to get a harvest, you need to know the exact month when you need to sow cabbage for seedlings. Early cauliflower varieties are sown throughout March, medium late ones from April 10 to May 10, and late varieties from May 25 to June 10.
Tank and soil preparation
Cauliflower doesn't like picking sowing seeds is carried out immediately in separate cups... If this is not possible, then provide such a distance between the seedlings so that when picking it is possible to take a plant with an earthen lump without disturbing the root system.
Nutritious soil is prepared from a mixture of low-lying peat, humus and sand. Falls asleep in a container for planting. The soil should be slightly damp before planting. Spill it with a potassium permanganate solution to reduce the risk of seedling diseases.
Seeds before planting are also treated in a solution of potassium permanganate. Sowing seeds is carried out to a depth of 1-1.5 cm. To avoid damage to the seedlings with a black leg, you can sprinkle the soil surface with a thin layer of fine sand after planting. From above, the container is covered with foil or glass and placed on a well-lit windowsill. If the windows face north, then the lighting will not be enough and the seedlings will stretch out. To avoid - organize additional illumination of seedlings.
Until emergence, containers can be kept at room temperature., but after that the seedlings are transferred to a room with a temperature of 10 ° C, and after a week they are raised to 15 ° C. Seedlings of cauliflower are very responsive to spraying in the phase of 2-3 true leaves with 0.2% boric acid solution and 0.5% ammonium molybdate solution.
Moving into the ground
When the seedlings form a rosette, and the average daily temperature does not drop below 12 ° C, plant the seedlings in open ground according to the 60 cm by 30 cm pattern, adding a handful of ash to the hole.
Important! When planting, do not deepen the center. This will lead to the loss of future crops. Sprinkle the seedlings up to the first leaves.
Immediately after planting, it is useful to cover the cauliflower with a non-woven material for a couple of days... This will give additional protection to immature plants.
Next, you can see a photo of growing cauliflower in the open field and in a greenhouse:
Where to grow?
In the open field
Cauliflower, unlike its white-headed relative, is more demanding on growing conditions in the country in the open field. Some summer residents complain that seemingly healthy and beautiful cauliflower plants in the garden do not have heads.
What is the reason? How to plant seedlings to get a harvest? Let's take a closer look. The temperature range favorable for plant development and head tying is relatively small, from 10 to 25 ° C. In open ground, seedlings are planted not earlier than the average daily temperature reaches a level of 12-15 ° C. Jumps and changes in temperature adversely affect the setting of heads of cabbage and their quality..
Important! Do not thicken your cauliflower plantings. The distance between the rows is at least 55-65 cm, and between plants in a row 30-40 cm.
Watering once a week at the rate of 10 liters per 1 sq.... In a hot period, additional soil moisture may be required, since cauliflower does not tolerate drying out of the upper layers of the soil. But remember that there should not be a "swamp" either. Experienced growers recommend using mulch. It will provide the necessary level of soil moisture and will bring additional nutrients.
Cauliflower responds well to fertilization. When grown outdoors, top dressing is carried out 3-4 times per season along with watering. Plants respond well to poultry manure solution (1:15) or mullein (1:10).
It is useful to feed with complex mineral fertilizers, enrich the soil with macro and microelements. After tying the heads (if the plants will not be used for harvesting seeds), feeding is stopped.
Loosening the soil around the plants is carried out very carefully, trying not to disturb the root system.
Remember to shade the cauliflower head, so that the inflorescences are dense and white. To do this, tie a few leaves of the plant with ordinary twine so that they cover the head from direct sunlight. After 5-10 days, you can harvest.
In the greenhouse
If the cauliflower will be grown in a greenhouse, then select the varieties that are best suited for this particular method. Pay attention to varieties such as:
- "White Castle".
One of the advantages of growing cauliflower in greenhouse is the ability to produce two crops per season. Seedlings planted at the end of summer have time to tie their heads before the onset of cold weather.
When growing cauliflower in a greenhouse, you can safely use the recommendations for agricultural technology in the open field, but observe a number of additional conditions:
- Airing the greenhouse and preventing air overheating above 25 ° C.
- Watering plants is carried out early in the morning.
- When carrying out dressings, use formulations containing a wide range of macro and microelements.
Using these simple guidelines, you are sure to get a good harvest of cauliflower.
Can you do this at home?
Growing cauliflower at home is troublesome.
- Monitor indoor temperature and humidity carefully. The air must not be dry.
- The root system of cauliflower is shallow and not very developed. Monitor soil moisture carefully.
- Do not let the soil in the container dry out, provide drainage.
- Cauliflower needs a sunny, draft-free location to grow well. She does not tolerate nearby higher or shading crops.
- Feed with complex mineral fertilizers several times a season.
Balcony-grown cauliflower will decorate your mini garden.
If the agrotechnology of growing cauliflower is not followed, the plants are easily affected by diseases.
- White rot - a fungal disease in which cabbage is covered with a white bloom. The plant rots. By direct contact, spores are transferred to other plants.
Prevention of the disease is the observance of crop rotation on the site (3-4 years). - Keela - affects the root system of cabbage. Plants stop developing and die. This disease is not treated - all affected plants are immediately burned. And cabbage is not grown on contaminated land for at least 5 years.
- Blackleg - the disease is mainly susceptible to seedlings. Outwardly, it is expressed in the blackening and softening of the stem base.
The reason is the violation of agricultural technology:
- excessive moisture;
- temperature drops;
- thickening of landings.
For prophylaxis, treat the ground with 1% solutions of potassium permanganate, potassium permanganate or "Fitosporin". Buy seedlings only from trusted sellers.
- Mucous bacteriosis - begins with the appearance of watery spots on the surface of the head, over time turns into rot with an unpleasant odor.
If the lesion is only at the initial stage, then you can cut out the affected area, affecting healthy tissue. In case of severe damage to the plant, it is better to pull out and burn... Excess moisture is the cause of the disease. Preventive measures - treatment of plants with a solution of colloidal sulfur.
The most common pests of cauliflower are: cabbage fly, cruciform flea beetle, aphids, cabbage scoop and white beetle.
Effective drugs for their destruction are considered:
- "Karate" is their counterpart.
Those who want to minimize chemical exposure use folk remedies. For example, pollination of cabbage with ash, tobacco dust, processing of leaves with infusion of tomato and potato tops. As experienced gardeners say, a healthy plant is not affected by pests.
Strengthen cauliflower plants with anti-stress drugs that increase plant immunity and disease resistance:
- Sodium humate.
Cauliflower - a real gem among culturesthat can be found in our garden plots. And if a beginner with its cultivation may have questions, then experienced gardeners, having studied the recommendations of this article, will do an excellent job and will delight themselves and their loved ones with wonderful and healthy dishes from cauliflower grown by their own hands. Now you know how to grow cabbage so that the heads of cabbage are set and a good harvest is obtained.