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Brussels sprouts are a popular vegetable crop among gardeners.
Its heads of cabbage are incredibly useful for the body, as they contain a whole range of useful substances, including phosphorus, iron, potassium.
A pleasant bonus for those who want to grow it in their garden is the simplicity of planting and care, so even a beginner can handle all the work.
In this article, we will get acquainted in detail with this wonderful plant, decide on the choice of a variety, learn how to properly care for and plant in the ground, and also learn everything about possible diseases and pests.
Where does it grow?
Where and how does the culture grow, what kind of care is needed in the open field? Brussels sprouts - cold-resistant crop... Due to its unpretentiousness, it can be grown everywhere: in the south, in the regions of the middle zone, in Siberia and in the Urals.
How to grow this variety outdoors in the garden, when and how to plant it for seedlings? Seedlings need to provide a temperature of about 5-6 ° C at night, during the day - 16-18 ° C and normal illumination. At the same time, the air humidity should be at least 70%.
Brussels sprouts emerge very quickly - in 4-6 days. Sow seeds at a distance of three to four centimeters from each other and to a depth of two centimeters.
It is only necessary to grow cabbage in a well-lit place, since the plant does not tolerate shade well.
When choosing the right variety, it is important to consider several points:
- Ripening period.
Early varieties yield in 120-150 days. Mid-season cabbage ripens for 150-180 days. And the latest varieties will delight you with a harvest in 180-200 days.
- Early varieties and hybrids: Franklin F1, Long Island, Rosella F1.
- Mid-season varieties and hybrids: Merry company, F1 Garnet bracelet, Hercules.
- Late-ripening varieties and hybrids: Sanda, Zavitka, Komandor.
On average, 50 heads of cabbage can be harvested from one bush. But if you choose Hercules 1342, then it can give up to 70 fruits.
- Biochemical composition.
Foreign varieties contain a lot of protein, minerals and vitamins. Between varieties and hybrids, give preference to the latter. They are protected at the genetic level from parasites and diseases.
A detailed description of the Brussels sprouts varieties can be found here.
Where could I buy?
You can buy Brussels sprouts seeds at any specialty store. The average price will be 14-18 rubles, depending on the variety.
When and how to cook?
Suitable time for sowing seeds is mid-March - early April... The difficulty is that the seedlings need to be provided with a temperature regime of 5-6 degrees at night, and 16-18 degrees during the day. Place seedlings in a room where the air humidity is 70%.
How to grow a crop from seeds in the country?
- Sow seeds to a depth of 1-1.5 cm. Separate pots filled with a moistened fertile substrate are suitable for this. To prepare it, mix in equal parts peat, sand, turf soil, wood ash and mineral fertilizers.
- Before planting, treat the substrate with a solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection.
- Planting planting material keeping a distance of 3-4 cm from each other. Cover with polyethylene and install in a room where the temperature is 18-20 degrees.
- After 4-5 days, the first shoots are formed.
- The first 2 weeks of watering are not needed, and then irrigate the soil as needed.
- Carry out a pick after 2-3 leaves are formed, planting the plants in separate containers.
From now on, open the covering material every day for 20 minutes.
For planting cabbage, choose southern or southeastern areasthat are brightly lit by the sun. The beds on which the following crops were previously grown are suitable:
Do not water the garden 7 days before planting, and thoroughly moisten the soil in the pots. A fertile loamy soil with a pH of 6.7-7.4 is suitable for a vegetable crop.
- Prepare the site in the fall. To do this, dig it up and add lime to the bayonet of the shovel.
- With the onset of spring, add compost or humus per 1 m2.
- Place a nutrient composition in the dug hole, consisting of the following components:
- urea - 10 g;
- superphosphate - 40 g;
- wood ash - 40 g.
Planting events should be carried out on a cloudy day or in the evening.
- Arrange the holes according to the scheme 60x60 cm.
- Dig them out slightly larger than the roots of the seedlings. Place compost mixed with soil in them.
- Transfer the plant from the pot into the hole, cover it with earth and lightly tamp it. Drizzle with lukewarm water.
Watch a video about planting seedlings in open ground.
Brussels sprouts are a moisture-loving plant. For the entire growing season, watering should be done 8-10 times. 35-40 liters of water are consumed per m2. If it is raining outside, then reduce the amount of irrigation. Use settled water for irrigation.
If you grow cabbage on non-fertilized soil, then during the growing season, add mineral compositions:
- First use of top dressing 7 days after planting... For this, use a solution of Nitrofoski. For 2 plants, 1 tsp is bred in water. drug.
- The second time, top dressing is applied at the beginning of the formation of heads of cabbage... Dissolve 25 g of potassium sulfate and superphosphate in 10 liters of water, and then add 10 g of Nitroammophoska. 1 bush takes 1.5 liters of solution.
The most dangerous insects for culture are:
- cruciferous flea;
- spring cabbage and sprout flies;
- wavy and black fleas;
- cabbage whites;
- aphids and moths;
- cabbage and rapeseed bugs;
- root hidden proboscis;
- scoops - winter, cabbage and vegetable scoops;
- rape flower beetle.
Folk remedies will help get rid of pests:
- An infusion of tobacco dust helps from cabbage aphids.
- take 200 g of ash and tobacco;
- add 20 g of mustard powder and soap;
- pour 10 liters of hot water over everything, leave for 1 day.
- Decoction of garlic is effective against various parasites.
- take 700 g of garlic;
- pour 10 liters of boiling water;
- simmer on the fire for 2 hours;
- before watering, combine the solution with water in equal proportions.
- From a cruciferous flea, it is effective to add fir oil to the water for irrigation. Insects simply cannot stand its smell.
Check out the photo of Brussels sprouts.
Treatment of diseases
Most often, the plant suffers from such diseases.:
- white and dry rot;
- black and ring spots;
- downy mildew;
- vascular and mucous bacteriosis;
To fight infectious diseases, use fungicides such as Fundazole or Maxim.
If the plant is affected by viral and bacterial diseases, then the only solution is to remove them from the site and burn them.
Prevention of the appearance of various problems
The main problem in the cultivation of Brussels sprouts remains blackleg lesions. Prevention is based on adherence to the following recommendations:
- do not thicken crops;
- do not water the bushes with cold water;
- do not overmoisten the soil.
Saplings that are already affected by a black leg should be immediately removed from the box, and all other plants should be watered with a solution of alibin B. 1 tablet is taken for 5 liters of water.
Growing Brussels sprouts is not difficult, but responsible. Subject to all recommendations for care and planting, every gardener will be proud of the harvested crop. It will certainly be high, tasty and of high quality.