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Traditionally, September is the "working" month for mushroom pickers. The "quiet hunting" season is not long, and cut mushrooms are almost never kept fresh, therefore, upon returning from the forest, you must immediately start processing them.
There are many ways to harvest mushrooms: pickle, fry, dry and freeze. Let's look at ways to prepare this popular, healthy and tasty snack.
Almost all types of mushrooms that grow in the forest are subject to salting. You can salt:
- Honey mushrooms.
- Holders (they are plantains, seryanka, serushki).
- Loaders (blackening, white, black and dry).
- Yellow milk mushrooms (scrapes, yellow waves).
- Black milk mushrooms (nigella).
- Milk mushrooms.
- Flywheels (Polish, green, red and variegated mushrooms).
- Aspen mushrooms.
- White mushrooms.
For salting, tubular mushrooms are considered the best. The category of the most delicious salted mushrooms includes milkmen. Tubular mushrooms are unusually tasty in salting, but only strong and young ones are used for salting, otherwise, during the cooking process, the cap will become tasteless and flabby, and the specific crunch will also be lost.
The most enjoyable stage of harvesting mushrooms for the winter is going into the forest after them, settling the mushrooms in jars and sampling the finished products.
The longest and most laborious process is the preparatory stage, which consists of sorting, cleaning and soaking.
It is recommended to sort the mushrooms by type, since different mushrooms have different salting times. Many old recipes assume “joint salting”, but it is better to process each type differently (they have different cooking and steeping times). You can put the mushrooms in one container for pickling after preliminary preparation.
All mushrooms must be cleaned of dirt, remove existing damage and rinse well with water. It is necessary to wash out the middle grooves of the caps thoroughly enough. The legs are separated from the caps in the lamellar type of mushrooms. With the use of a not very hard toothbrush, dirt is removed in the inner part between the plates. The peel from the caps is removed from butter and russula.
Cutting up large mushrooms will be easier and more convenient during cleaning.
The type of mushrooms that contain milky juice (lactic acid) is soaked. The procedure time depends only on the degree of bitterness (pungency). Often they adhere to this time:
- Violinists, smoothies, podoshniki, value, white, black milk mushrooms - from 2 to 5 days.
- Waves - up to 1-1.5 days.
- White milk mushrooms - up to 1 day. Some mushroom pickers do not soak small white milk mushrooms at all.
- Russula and mushrooms - you do not need to soak.
How to salt mushrooms?
After finishing cleaning and pre-salting, you can breathe a sigh of relief. The remaining salting process is quick and easy.
Mushrooms are salted in the following ways: dry, cold and hot.
The dry method is distinguished by the least laboriousness and convenience. This method is only suitable for russula and mushrooms. Some mushroom pickers for dry pickling use leaflets, smoothies and nigella. These mushrooms have a milky acrid juice, so you should not experiment, but before salting them it is worth soaking them.
Ryzhiks are mushrooms of the first category.... They are delicious without any additional processing, so they are excellent for dry pickling. All types of russula, except for burning ones, can be salted without additional processing.
The method is called dry due to the fact that it differs from the cold "wet" method from the ability not to soak the mushrooms before salting. It is enough to clean them of adhering debris with a soft cloth.
In russula, it is necessary to remove the skin from the caps - it gives bitterness.
This method of salting mushrooms excludes their heat treatment. The mushrooms are washed and cleaned, the milkmen are soaked, and then the direct process of salting begins.
At the bottom of the prepared container, you must put garlic, dill, bay leaf, etc. of your choice and taste. It is not recommended to add too many spices, so as not to interrupt the taste of the mushrooms.
The mushrooms are laid out in rows on the caps, then they are sprinkled with verified salt (40 - 50 g per 1 kg of mushrooms). After settling all the mushrooms, it is necessary to put a non-synthetic fabric on top, cover it with a circle and press down with oppression.
Under the oppression, the mushrooms will secrete juice and settle every 2 to 3 days. Then you can add a new portion from the top until they stop settling and the entire container is full.
This method is relevant for lamellar and tubular mushrooms. Standard pre-preparation is used, mushrooms should be peeled, washed. In lamellar species, the legs are cut off, and if the caps are too round, then they are cut. Pre-soaking is not necessary for tubular mushrooms. It is important to soak the milkers before hot salting.
After the preliminary preparation process, the mushrooms must be boiled, which determines the name of the method.
Mushrooms should be put in salted boiled water (for 1 liter of water - 50 g) and boiled.
Time is counted from the moment of boiling with mushrooms:
- Ryzhiks - pour boiling water over 2 - 3 times.
- Chanterelles - 15 to 20 minutes
- Valuei - from 30 to 35 minutes
- Honey mushrooms - from 25 to 30 minutes.
- Champignons - 10 to 15 minutes
- Loadings and milk mushrooms - from 7 to 10 minutes.
- Volnushki and russula - from 10 to 15 minutes.
- Butter, mushrooms, boletus, boletus, porcini mushrooms - from 10 to 15 minutes.
You need to get the boiled mushrooms and wait until they cool down. Then they are placed in a selected container and sprinkled with salt (2 - 3% of the total mass of mushrooms). Spices and herbs are optional. They are poured with the brine in which they were cooked, and garlic and dill are added on top. It is also recommended to pour vegetable oil on top with a layer of 1 cm.
How to store?
Salted mushrooms are stored at temperatures ranging from 0 to + 3 ... + 4⁰С. It is necessary not to allow the mushrooms to freeze, which can happen when storing blanks on the balcony in city apartments.
If they freeze, the mushrooms will begin to crumble, and the taste will be irretrievably lost.... Even a slight increase in temperature is undesirable, mushrooms can become moldy and sour at a temperature of + 5 ... + 6⁰С.
Care must be taken to ensure that the mushrooms are always covered with brine. If it evaporates, you must immediately add boiled water.
When mold appears on top, the fabric is replaced with another one. If you want to leave the fabric that is already in use, then it must be washed and boiled. The oppression and the circle are thoroughly washed and doused with boiling water 2 - 3 times.
To protect fungi from mold, you can add sunflower oil to the brine, which should be boiled before adding. This will provide additional protection against the ingress of germs and air.