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A resident of any region wants to grow tasty and healthy persimmons.
The most delicious persimmon, unfortunately, will not grow in the middle lane.
However, it is possible to find varieties that will survive in cold winters.
For growing in a summer cottage in the middle lane, a seedling grown from a seed is suitable.
It is necessary to choose a variety with the maximum level of frost resistance, for example, virgin persimmon.
This variety is characterized by the longest winter dormancy. The native land of the variety is North America.
The tree can reach twenty meters in height. The roots are able to withstand freezing soil up to minus fifteen degrees. The variety can thrive on clayey soils, where a large amount of moisture accumulates.
The long period of winter dormancy makes it possible to successfully survive the cold season. This allows thaws not to cause sap flow ahead of time. The variety can be used as a rootstock for other cultivars.
There are a large number of varieties of persimmons, which are divided into three groups depending on the timing of ripening, or rather, on the time of harvest. Distinguish:
- early varieties... In southern areas, they are harvested from September to October;
- mid-season varieties... Persimmon belonging to these varieties is obtained in October - November;
- late... The fruits ripen in late November - early December.
Ripening dates depend on the weather in the region. Some remove the fruits before the specified time, leaving them to ripen. Resorting to this method, you need to understand that the quality of the fruit will be worse.
On the persimmon, male, female and bisexual flowers can bloom.
Some varieties can form only female flowers, for example, Sidles, Khachia, Emon.
If climatic conditions permit, plants can set fruit without fertilization..
The varieties Gailey, Dream, Shagotsu gaki bloom both female and male flowers every year.
The taste of the fruit depends on pollination. Seed fruit tastes brighter than seedless fruit. The pulp around the seed is always tastier than the rest of the fruit.
To get a large and high-quality harvest, you need to pollinate female plants.... Some varieties bear fruit without this procedure. According to this criterion, persimmon varieties are divided into three groups:
- pollination is necessary: Yankin tsura, Maru, gosho gaki, Ezo ichi and others;
- pollination is not necessary: Gosho, Tamopan large and others;
- contiguous group: Soyo, Aizu, Khachia and others.
Plants belonging to an adjacent group are capable of bearing fruit without a pollination procedure. They resort to it in order to improve the taste and quality of fruits, to increase their size and quantity of the harvest. The pulp changes color and becomes softer and more tender.
Pollination is an important procedure that improves the quality and quantity of the crop. For this reason, it is recommended to allocate one tree for pollination for eight to nine trees with female flowers. If there is no way to plant such a tree, you will have to do manual pollination.
Choosing a seat for landing
Persimmons should grow in a comfortable soil for them to be able to develop well and bear fruit. Alluvial loamy or sandy loamy soils are considered ideal soils. They must be fertile. Underground sources should not approach the surface of the earth closer than 0.75 meters.
Basically, the roots lie at a depth of about one and a half meters. Powerful varieties feed on an area of sixty-four square meters, and low-growth varieties - on an area of twenty-five square kilometers.
Choose a place with good lighting, hidden from the chilly winter winds... In a place where a strong shadow falls, the tree will feel bad: the fruits will begin to fall off, the leaves will lose their shape.
Selection and planting of seedlings
It is recommended to purchase planting material from a manufacturer who guarantees the quality of the product.
Buying from dealers and even at a trade show can be frustrating.
You may come across a plant that does not correspond to the declared variety, is not frost-resistant and is not suitable for the middle lane.
Seedlings with open roots are bought in autumn. They carefully examine the appearance of the plant to see if it is healthy.
If the tree was dug up correctly, it will have thin roots with branching. They are very delicate: they die an hour or two after drying. If these roots have died and the underlying root system looks healthy, the planting material is suitable for growing.
A support is installed at the site of planting persimmons. A seedling is placed in the dug hole, placing it against the wall so as not to damage the small roots. The root system is gently straightened and sprinkled with earth.
When frosts come, the tree is protected with a box and mulched with peat or humus. The barrel is always whitewashed. A sharp cold snap causes the bark to peel off, so it is necessary to protect the plant as much as possible from temperature changes in winter.
Features of persimmon care
Successful cultivation depends on proper care, disease prevention and parasite prevention. Before the beginning of winter, preparatory work must be carried out. For a month and a half, they stop watering the tree to allow the shoots to ripen.
Fertilizers containing potassium and phosphorus help the ripening, with which the plants have been intensively fed since July. If the tree is properly prepared for winter, frost resistance can increase by two to three degrees.
The correct formation of the crown of the plant is important. Heavy pruning is done when you want to form a certain shape. During the appearance of fruits, damaged and dried shoots are destroyed.
At the end of fruiting, pruning for rejuvenation is effective. In the season when such a procedure is carried out, you can not wait for the harvest from the tree, but in two years it will give a rich harvest.
Persimmons can be affected by gray rot or scab, although usually the tree is resistant to diseases. Diseases are cured by spraying with Bordeaux liquid or systemic drugs.