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One of the species of underground rodents, which is widespread in Russia, is the mole vole.
She lives underground in burrows, and harms vegetable gardens and farms by eating tubers, bulbs and other underground parts of vegetables.
This way of life unites a mole, a gopher and a mole vole.
Baby baby: photo and appearance
The baby deaf is underground mammal from the hamster family.
It weighs up to 70 grams and length up to 13 cm... The tail is very short - up to 1.7 cm long, which is why it sometimes seems that it is completely absent.
The coat is soft and thick. Coloration on the back from light yellowish tones to dark black-brown... If the mole vole has a light color, then a small "cap" of a dark shade is sure to stand out on the head.
The color of the tummy almost does not differ in color from the back. The molting process takes place every year, with the greatest intensity in August. Females are similar in size to males.
The body of the mole vole is excellent for digging passages and tunnels - it is roll-shaped, the neck is short, the front incisors and the muscles of the front part of the body are well developed.
The ears are missing, the eyes are slightly protruding, black color. On each paw there are 5 toes that are not covered with fur. The tracks are round.
Bright photo gallery with the common mole vole:
Distribution and reproduction
The baby blindfold lives in a wide area, from the Crimea and the Ciscaucasia to the Altai steppes, as well as in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.
The main habitat is steppe, semi-desert, forest-steppe. Can live in the mountains at altitudes up to 4000 meters, where the largest populations are noted.
When building a burrow, it plays an important role is the degree of freezing of the ground and the height of the snow cover - severe frosts with a small amount of snow can cause the death of the animal.
The mole vole does not live in continuous sands.
Usually this animal is its habitat. selects places with crumbly soil and rich vegetation.
It is very rare to be found in feather-grass and wormwood-cereal areas. In forests, it prefers the edges of aspen and birch meadows.
Males can build 2-3 tunnels each, which connect its burrow system with the dwellings of females. The mole voles breed from March to October.
Pregnancy of females lasts approximately 3 weeks... During the year, 3-4 litters of 2-4 cubs in each may appear.
The ability to reproduce in blindflies occurs at the age of 1.5 months.
Young mole voles come to the surface at night for settling on the territory.
The animal usually conducts all my life in one place... The reason for migration can be the plowing of land, severe drought, flooding of the area during rains or spring floods, excessive watering of irrigated fields.
It is a diurnal animal, acting actively throughout the day. Leads life underground and only occasionally appears on the surface, usually to move to a new territory or dump land.
From above, distances of up to 800 meters can be covered. Eats underground parts of plants, and to obtain them, he builds underground burrows with a diameter of 4-8 cm and a large length - up to hundreds of meters.
The mole vole throws all the excavated earth to the surface through small holes, as a result of which you can observe many piles up to 35 cm in height.
Like other underground inhabitants, the animal no exits to the surface - burrows remain open only during the period of ejection of earth from there. Under normal conditions, they are plugged with special earthen plugs.
Places of nest and storage of stocks are located at a depth of 1-2 meters underground, and the volume of stored products can reach several kilograms.
In one nest, lined with roots and onion husks, up to 10 mole voles live - an adult couple and young animals from one or two last litters.
In winter, it does not hibernate. With the onset of a period of severe drought and heat, all vital activity practically stops, and only resumes again in the fall.
Distinctive features from other rodents
The main differences between the mole vole and similar rodent species are:
- The absence of a median ridge in the space between the eyes;
- The third upper tooth has only two rounded corners on both sides;
- The shade of the fur is different - even animals living in the same area can have a different color.
A mole rat can be distinguished from a mole rat by its slightly smaller size, and more like a large vole.
The common mole rat differs from the Afghan one by a different structure of the skull, from the Promethean vole - by the presence of a short tail.
Harm to the human farmer and how to fight
During meals damages crops - potatoes, beets, alfalfa and cotton crops. Can spoil young trees by gnawing roots and bark, walls of canals for irrigation, earth storages.
At the same time, the mole vole brings great benefits to the economy, enriching the land with useful nutrients and aerating it.
Mass protective measures are not carried out in the fields, because usually the number of animals within one zone is smallto cause great significant damage to agricultural crops.
Seriously affect settlement decline regular plowing of the soil and irrigation.
Controlling the pest makes it difficult for it to stay underground all the time. Usually baits with poison are used (vegetables, alfalfa, clover), which are placed in the opened holes.
Works well gas method... Modified mole traps can be used. On solid ground, the most effective technique is regular abundant watering.
The natural enemies of the mole vole are birds of prey and animals. However, taking into account the underground way of life, only snakes and weasels can attack them, and even then, provided there is an open passage into the hole.
In addition, infectious diseases, parasites, flooding burrows in spring with water from melting snow, limit the number of the animal.
Baby deaf - pest mammal, distributed over a large part of the territory of Russia, as well as in the countries of Central Asia.
Lives mainly underground, where he builds long passages-labyrinths. It feeds on the underground part of plants, including agricultural crops - potatoes, beets and others.
The most effective measure against the mole vole is plowing fields and abundant watering.... Mass protective measures are not carried out due to the small number of animals in a particular area.
In the video, you can clearly see the common mole vole: