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Ziziphus is a plant of the Krushinov family, which is called unabi, jujuba or jujuba.
The birthplace of ziziphus is China, where they began to feast on the gifts of unabis 4000 years ago.
By the way, zizafun, from which the name ziziphus comes from, is the Persian name for any edible fruit.
Now the plant is quite common, found in Australia, Brazil, Japan, Malaysia, the Caucasus, Ukraine.
Ziziphus is a small (5-7m) long-liver tree with dense leathery leaves and small light green flowers.
Branches of non-varietal plants are often decorated with long, sharp thorns. In October, in place of flowers, fruits appear from slightly yellowish to reddish-brown in color.
Jujuba berries are sweet and sour or sweet, they are consumed fresh and dried. Jujube fruits are used to make jam, compote, jam, marmalade, candied fruits, dried fruits, and sweets. The jam resembles pear jam, but has a faint pineapple hue.
Ziziphus fruits contain the following elements:
- vitamins of group A, B, C;
- trace elements;
- organic and ascorbic acids;
- nitrogen-free glycosides;
- nitrogen-containing organic compounds.
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Useful properties of ziziphus
Ziziphus has a beneficial effect on the body:
- lowers blood pressure;
- relieves anxiety;
- improves the gastrointestinal tract - function;
- treats skin diseases;
- reduces the formation of fibrous plaques in atherosclerosis;
- successfully treats cough, eliminates discomfort in the oral cavity;
- improves the action of the urinary system;
- perfectly tones;
- the leaves have an anesthetic effect.
How to grow ziziphus on your own plot
Ziziphus is thermophilic. Usually it grows in warm climates, so it may be possible to grow it, for example, in Udmurtia, but it is unlikely to enjoy the fruits.
In cold winters, unabi plants freeze almost to the roots.
There is a result of growing jujuba in the greenhouses of the northern regions, but young ziziphus did not bear fruit, grew sickly and stopped growing.
Drop off time
"Breast berry" is planted in early spring or in the middle of it. In autumn - in the last decade, but an unrooted seedling may freeze slightly.
Fertilizers and humus should be added to the pit prepared for ziziphus.
After placing the plant in the center of the hole, shed well. Then, pressing the seedling more tightly to the bottom of the pit, sprinkle the root shoots with soil.
Shed again, add a little more earth, tamp lightly. By applying these planting techniques, you can achieve painless rooting.
Unabi is very fond of light. In the shade of the jujuba it grows poorly and blooms, the flowers always turn out to be a barren flower, so for planting it is worth choosing a place hidden from the cold wind, but accessible to the sun's rays.
Before planting, it must be borne in mind: with the growth of the crown, the unabi becomes quite sprawling, therefore it is better to adhere to the planting scheme of 3 by 4 meters.
Zizyphus is unpretentious to the ground, but responsive to care.
For the best survival rate of ziziphus, the soil under young plants should not be dug up, but mulched, periodically introducing organic matter.
It is not necessary to allow weeds to overgrow the place where the unabi is planted: he does not like such a neighborhood.
Ziziphus, due to the structure of its roots, easily withstands dryness. But he does not accept excessive soil moisture.
Zhuzhuba is a cross-pollinated plant, therefore, for good pollination, a couple more specimens should be placed nearby, perhaps even a seedling grown independently from a stone.
The plant opens and blooms late, which allows it to avoid frost.
There are a lot of flowers, they emit a pleasant sweetish aroma, which attracts a large number of insects. The flowering period is about 60 days.
Although some of the flowers remain non-pollinated, the jujuba, when fruiting, is capable of producing up to sixty kg of berries from an adult specimen.
Due to the non-simultaneous flowering, the ripening of berries is also uneven. With fine, warm autumn, the fruits can be harvested until October. Fruit weight 3-20 grams.
With careful care, even a "breast berry" grown from a bone begins to form ovaries already for 2-3 years, and varietal seedlings, provided they are well rooted, are capable of producing berries in the first year.
It is better to form an unabi crown 1-2 years after rooting, so as not to injure. The crown is usually cupped with 4-5 main branches placed around the trunk.
The main trunk is cut to 15-20 cm, other branches are cut at the same level with it.
During the growth of the Chinese date, sanitary pruning is carried out by cutting off the branches that grow inward.
Elegant fritillaria will decorate any garden and will delight with its flowering for a long time.
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Diseases and pests of ziziphus
Zizyphus almost does not get sick, insect pests also do not touch it. Birds are interested in ripe fruits, so the berries should be removed as soon as they are ripe.
Zizyphus propagates by root shoots, cuttings, grafting or seeds.
The seeds for planting are stratified for 60 days. Before sealing, it is recommended to lightly tap the bone with a hammer to form a small crack: this will make it easier for the sprout to hatch.
The bones are closed 3-4 cm deep into the soil spilled with warm water. The sowing is covered with a film to avoid evaporation of water from the surface.
After 20 days, the sprouted sprouts should be transferred to an individual dish.
Young zizyphus are transplanted to the same landing site only a year later.
Plants grown from seeds do not have hereditary varietal traits. Fruiting is not as abundant as the "parents", and begin to bloom much later, so the plants should be grafted.
Chinese date varieties
The most popular varieties are:
Chinese 2A. Large-fruited variety, berry weight from 11 to 20 grams. Fruits are dense, suitable for jam, compotes, making candied fruits.
Candy. Early ripe, very fruitful. Berries - 4-8 grams. The pulp of the berries is juicy and sweet. Berries of the "Candy" variety are suitable for both preparations and food.
Koktebel. Late large-fruited variety. Berries reach 52 grams.
Chinese 93. Medium early variety. The berries weigh from 5 to 10 grams. The shape of the berry is oblong, slightly irregular, curved. Purpose - universal
Syrup: 500 ml of water, 1 kg of sugar, 10 grams of lemon.
Pour berries chopped with a toothpick with boiled syrup, leave for 7-8 hours, then boil for 25 minutes. Pour the jam into sterilized ones, roll up.
Place clean, dry rafts in sterilized 3-liter jars. Fill with water 90 °.
Boil water with sugar and lemon (for a 3-liter jar - 200-250 grams of sugar and 0.25 tsp lemon).
Drain water from cans, pour syrup instead of it, roll up.
Syrup: 1 liter of water, 700 grams of sugar (as much is needed for 1 kg of berries). Place the washed chopped berries in a saucepan, pour over the syrup, boil for 2 minutes. Leave to stand for 7 hours.
Remove seeds from the berries, chop the pulp with a blender. Cook the resulting mass for 5 minutes, arrange in jars, roll up.
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The healing properties of ziziphus
Soothing tea. 10-15 berries pour 250 ml of water 90 ۦ °, leave for 15 minutes. Drink 1 hour before bedtime.
Broth to reduce pressure. 5-10 berries pour 500 ml of boiling water. Steam for 30 minutes. Cool, strain, add boiling water to 500 ml. Consume 2 times a day for three months.
Unabi leaves ointment. Heat 100 grams of unabi leaves to 90 ° with 500 ml of unabi olive oil, leave for 10 days. Lubricate the abscesses with oil until they become smaller.
Infusion of ziziphus for cough. Steam 2 grams of plant leaves with 300 ml of 90 ° water, leave for 1 hour. Drink 50ml 3-4 times.
By planting a magic ziziphus in the yard, you will not only get vitamin-rich desserts, but also improve your health.