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Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented grape juice as a result of its fermentation process.
If the drink is made from other berries or fruits, then it is not considered wine.
Wines come in a variety of colors, flavors, strengths and characteristics. The basis of the wine is grapes. It is he who sets the tone for the drink.
A substandard or unsuitable grape variety will not make a tasty drink, therefore, the basis of winemaking is the cultivation of wine grape varieties.
Making a wine drink is an art that begins with grapes. Winegrowers note that good wine grapes have a certain structure - the berries are usually small, the bunches should not be large, and the juice content in the berry should be more than 80 percent.
The grapes should have a distinct taste, often tart, and the aroma of the berries should be intense.
Find out what are the best grape varieties on our website.
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Stages of wine making
Winemaking is divided into two stages:
- Grape harvesting, processing, fermentation and clarification;
- Aging, pouring and bottling.
Of course, this is a short description of the stages, since the production technology is complex, and the process takes a long time.
The grapes are harvested at the maximum ripening of the berries. Sometimes picking overripe berries is allowed, since the sugar content should be as high as possible.
White grapes ripen a little later than red ones.
The technologies for the production of red and white wines have some differences, for example, in the pressing time and the stages of pressing the berries.
Grape varieties from which wine is produced
The most popular variety. French variety, unstable to aging. The berries are yellow-green, spotted, with red veins, the leaves are dark green.
Aligote wines are light, with a pleasant delicate taste. The variety is suitable for making sparkling wines.
Spanish wine variety. The berries ripen and bear poorly. Berries are yellow-green, small. It is used to make high quality wines such as port or Madeira, suitable for the production of sherry.
French variety. The berries ripen early, the clusters are dense, green with a golden hue.
Suitable for making white wines with a rich aroma.
Hybrid variety. The berries are black with a thick skin. Ripen late. Suitable for making red dessert wines, less often table wines.
Italian late ripening variety. The berries are red, with a tart taste and smell. Suitable for long aging red wines.
The wines are aromatic, tart and with a currant flavor. The color of the wine is dark, intense.
Technical grade with small dark blue berries without aroma. It is used to prepare mainly dry wine with a rich bouquet and notes of chocolate, cherries, berries and even rose hips.
The wine turns out to be of a deep ruby color, high quality.
Portuguese variety, homeland - Madeira island. The berries are small, greenish with a golden tint. Sweet in taste, with a delicate aroma.
Suitable for making Madeira varieties of wine, as well as for strong and sherry wines.
Bunches are small with small round berries of almost white color. The berries have a musk aroma and are not susceptible to aging. White wines are obtained with musky or apricot aromas, quite rich and sweet.
Popular variety. There are two types - white and noir (Black). Cultivated white, noir is a very ancient variety with sugar berries. Used for high quality red wines.
It is often used to dilute wines from other grape varieties due to its strong sweetness and pronounced taste.
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A French variety suitable for making red wines, mostly dry. The wine is light, with a delicate aroma of berries or fruits.
A white grape variety native to France. A very fragrant variety suitable for the production of sweet wines. The wines have a rich aroma of honey, rose or citrus.
An Italian red grape variety. Berries are not susceptible to aging, suitable for red wines that have a pleasant fruity aroma.
American variety, wines obtained from grapes of this variety are highly alcoholic with a tart sour taste.
The aroma can be with notes of spices and pepper, as well as rose and berries.
Turkish variety. The berries are small, black. It is used in the preparation of light red wines with a fresh, unsaturated aroma.
Perhaps the most famous grape variety. French variety with small dark blue berries. It is used to make a rich red wine with a tart aroma of black currant, chocolate or juniper notes.
White grape variety. Crimean variety, resistant to aging. The berries are green, medium-sized, oval. Suitable for the preparation of white dessert wines with a light aroma.
A red grape variety found primarily in Chile. The wine is sweetish, with hints of plum, coffee or black berries.
Italian white grape variety. It is used in the production of Piedmont wines, as well as sparkling and champagne. A fragrant light variety, the wines from which have a faint lime or berry aroma.
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A grape variety for the production of red wine. The berries are large, blue-red. The wine is velvety, with a pleasant cherry or chocolate aroma.
A variety with small berries and a dense bunch. It is used in the preparation of light wines with a velvety delicate taste.
A red grape variety as popular as Cabernet.
Merlot wines are soft, with a rich aroma of berries, cedar and chocolate. These are the most fruity wines.
French grape variety. The berries are round, blue, the bunch is not dense. The wines are ruby-colored with a strong juicy taste and hints of plum and tobacco.
Muscat white and black
Popular variety, originally from Egypt. Muscat wines are of high quality and rich in nutmeg aroma. The berries are dense, yellow-green, or black with a blue tint.
An Italian red grape variety. The berry is blue-black, the bunch is small and dense. Wines from this variety are obtained with sourness and notes of herbs, licorice and leather.
White grape variety. Suitable for making white wines with pear or apple aromas.
A red grape variety with the most unusual and complex flavor. Wines from this grape variety include a complex bouquet of flavors of berries, musk and herbs.
A white grape variety from which both dry and sweet wines are made.
A noble variety suitable for aging, giving the wine a plum, peach and fruit aroma.
The most popular Italian variety. Red wine will be distinguished by spice and rich taste.
Red grape variety. The wines have a strong rich berry aroma and a dark color.
A popular Spanish red grape variety whose wines have aromas of berries and tobacco.
Portuguese variety from which port is made. Wines can be either dry or fortified, they have aromas of raisins, honey and dried fruits.
French variety, the wines from which are distinguished by the greatest aging. The wines come in many flavors, ranging from berries, honey and pastries to fruits.
The most famous white grape in the world. Wines made from it can be both light, low-aromatic, and tart with bright notes of berries, sweets and honey.
We have considered only the most popular grape varieties for wine production. In fact, there are thousands of different varieties - original and cultivated. This proves once again that winemaking is not just an interesting occupation, but also a real art!
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