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Breeders from year to year work hard to create new varieties of beautiful berries - grapes.
The taste of grapes conquers with its freshness, subtle hints of spices and fruit sugar.
From year to year, varieties are created, the qualities of which do not tire of surprising and delighting both amateur gardeners and professionals in grape cultivation.
Increased frost resistance, new flavor notes, low susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal diseases, high fertility, these and many other properties improve with each new variety.
A special science called "ampelography" has been created to study the numerous qualities of grapes, variants of crossing varieties, breeding the latest hybrids.
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Benefits of new grape varieties
The new varieties have a host of improved qualities. Modern varieties can be planted not only in warm climates, as it was decades ago, now the berry manages to ripen in the temperate zone, without dying in severe frosts.
Some grape varieties are able to withstand winter weather with temperatures as low as -25˚ and below. Vineyards of this kind are usually characterized by an early ripening period. Tamerlane, Rusven, Voskovoy - these are only isolated examples of grapes with the above properties.
It is important to understand that by planting the same grapes in different climatic zones, the result will also be different.
In order to successfully grow a berry, you need to adapt to the climatic zone. It is necessary to apply knowledge, provide additional insulation for seedlings, treat plantings with a fungicide. With the right approach, the return will be maximum.
Grape breeding methods
Directions for breeding grape varieties:
- Vegetative hybridization.
- Artificial hybridization.
- Sowing seeds from pollination in their natural environment.
Whichever method is used in practice, the result should be the receipt of those qualities that selection is aimed at.
The successful result will be the breeding of a variety that will surpass the existing one in its qualities. What properties should be emphasized when developing a new variety?
1. Resistance to winter frost
Frost-resistant varieties are advantageous in that they do not die in a harsh winter. Plus, both financial and physical costs of caring for plantings in the winter are minimized.
2. High resistance to disease
Varieties that can resist various fungi, bacteria and viruses do not require additional chemical treatments. At the same time, the quality of the berry improves.
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3. Obtaining varieties with bisexual flowers
Such plants do not require additional pollination measures, and bushes of the opposite sex are not planted in the immediate vicinity.
4. Increase in productivity
There are varieties that, with the excellent quality of the berries obtained, have a low yield. The combination of both qualities in one variety will help to get a lot of good harvest in one season.
5. Obtaining varieties of early ripening
A grape that has a short ripening time helps to increase the fresh harvest season. At the same time, technical planting could increase the collection time, which significantly relieves workers who do not need to pick berries in a short time.
To obtain varieties with the necessary qualities, a careful selection of parental individuals is made.
It is desirable that the parents be as distant as possible, and at the same time have the desired qualities. Particular attention should be paid to the fact which of the two parent plants is female and which is male.
New grape varieties bred in 2013
In 2013, scientists and amateur gardeners obtained several varieties that have the qualities that allow you to get more harvest, and at the same time experience less difficulties with transportation and storage.
Hybrid variety obtained from crossing Sofia and Rusbol. Berries with crispy flesh and a pleasant nutmeg flavor.
The mass of a ripe bunch is about one and a half kilograms. Matures early.
Resistant to frost up to -21 ˚ С. Sometimes seeds appear in the berries.
It is characterized by high resistance to pathogens.
A folk grape, the original varieties of which remained unknown.
A distinctive feature is large berries, which are saturated with nutmeg shades when fully ripe. Shoot growth is strong. Average resistance to mildew requires regular treatment with drugs.
Seedless hybrid VI - 4
The growth of the bushes is strong, the berries ripen late. The color of the berry is white, the taste is unobtrusive. Variety with rudimentary seeds inside berries.
Resistance to various diseases is closer to average. Not resistant to frost.
Stores well during transportation.
A characteristic feature of this variety are large, up to two kilograms of weight, bunches. The taste has notes of cherry, some sourness. The berries are light purple. Stores well during long-term transportation.
Shoot growth is strong, ripening of medium term, frost-resistant up to -23˚ С. Sufficiently resistant to disease damage. Stores well and tastes better.
Early ripening of fruits is characteristic. Flowers are bisexual. Ripe bunches weigh up to 600 grams. The color of the berries is red. The taste of the berries is harmonious. High resistance to mildew, excellent transportability.
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Features of the latest grape varieties
Thus, the newest grape varieties are characterized by:
- increased resistance to long-term transportation;
- increase in shelf life;
- reduction in ripening time;
- increasing disease resistance;
- increased frost resistance.
These qualities help to grow the grapes that will bring the maximum amount of profit with the least loss and preservation of taste.
Safe shipping helps to deliver the crop in integrity throughout the country and beyond.
Sprinter, Seedless hybrid - these varieties are well stored, withstand transportation. The appearance of the grapes is also important.
So, varieties like Nizina 2 are in less demand due to the color of the berries, while grapes with golden bunches are more popular.
At the same time, Nizina 2 matures quickly, which overrides its inconspicuous color and taste. The taste, by the way, becomes quite saturated during storage.
Premier kishmish conquers both with its color and its taste, which covers the low resistance to diseases. Each new variety is good in its own way, each has a lot of positive properties.
Work to create the perfect grape continues. Geneticists are working on the theoretical basis for growing the ideal variety. Breeders are testing in practice, introducing new methods of crossing varieties into production, getting new vines.
A whole range of activities is aimed at cultivating a culture that will have those properties that are beneficial to humans.
Every year the number of items is increasing, and we are getting one step closer to those plants that can satisfy all needs at once. 2013 presented new varieties, but there are still many discoveries ahead, and lovers of aromatic berries will still be able to enjoy new notes of taste and color.
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