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Almost no one will remain indifferent at the sight of the fragrant and ripe fruits of a pear, so if you have a garden, be sure to plant this tree.
Planting is considered the most important step in growing this horticultural crop. But if it is carried out incorrectly, you will have to wait a long time for a good harvest, and perhaps never see it.
Choosing a place for planting pears
The first step in cultivating a pear tree is choosing the right place and preparing the soil. Pear is a lover of warmth and light, so the place should be wide and not darkened. It can be planted both in autumn and spring.
But an autumn planting on the advice of specialists is preferable. When planting, the sapling should already fall off the leaves and slow down the movement of the juice.
At the end of summer, around the third decade of August, be sure to dig up future planting sites and add fertilizers:
- compost - 7-8 kg per sq. m;
- potassium salt - 25-30 g;
- superphosphate - 50-60 g.
The best time to plant many varieties of pears is late September - early October, when the warmth encourages less painful engraftment of the root system.
Planting and caring for a pear
For planting, it is better to take seedlings that are already 1-2 years old. When buying, pay attention that the appearance of the roots, trunk and branches is holistic. The tree must be elastic and durable, without flaws.
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Dig a hole slightly larger than the root system of the seedling. Make sure that the soil is sufficiently loose and that optimal air exchange is ensured. Drive in a stake at a distance of 20-30 cm from the center of the hole, which serves as the basis for the correct formation and growth of the tree. It should rise 60-70 cm above the ground.
Determine the location of the root collar - the starting point of the root system. As a rule, it is located 4-5 cm above the first upper roots. This point must be known for proper planting, survival, and ultimately the harvest.
An important process is the "immersion" of the seedling into the hole. Hold the tree so that the root collar is 5-6 cm above the ground level. Carefully spread the roots and immediately cover with the soil in which the seedling grew.
When not a single root can be seen, firmly trample the soil, thoroughly water and mulch the near-trunk circle with humus or manure. Then tie the tree trunk to the peg with a figure-eight rope.
While it is still warm, you need to mulch regularly, you can even use cut grass, the main thing is to make sure that the mulch does not touch the trunk of the pear.
Caring for young trees includes regular watering, loosening near-trunk circles, digging up the soil, removing weeds and fighting diseases and pests.
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Application of dressings and fertilizers
The first year after the autumn planting of a pear, fertilization can be omitted, since they have already been introduced into the planting pits.
Starting from the second year after planting, it is required to apply mineral fertilizers annually, and organic fertilizers - once every three years.
Excellent results are obtained by spraying trees after harvesting with a 5% urea solution.
Together with the main fertilizers, which are applied in the fall, dressings are used throughout the growing season. Regarding doses and timing, you need to consider:
- varietal features;
- the state of the tree;
- the size of the crop;
- the volume of the main fertilizer;
- humidification conditions;
- soil fertility.
If you are doing liquid feeding, use a solution of poultry manure and slurry.
Much less hassle is the surface application of fertilizers to the trunk circle followed by digging. But, it is worth noting that the effectiveness of this method is very low, since the nutrients have time to evaporate from the fertilizers.
In the area under the pear, it is recommended to apply fertilizers into the annular groove along the edge of the crown to a depth of 25-30 cm. A good effect is provided by the introduction of dressings into deep wells made by soil drilling to a depth of 50-60 cm.
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The first pruning and shaping of the crown of the tree is carried out in the autumn or early spring. But, it should be noted that the crown of the pear is well formed by itself and does not need significant pruning.
A small correction pruning will be enough to observe the stimulation of fruit and the formation of semi-skeletal branches.
On personal plots, rounded and spherical crowns are recommended.
The best shape for such a crown is considered to be a sparse-tiered one, which perfectly corresponds to the natural laws of crown constitution.
Growing a pear tree is not difficult at all, and a great harvest is almost always guaranteed!