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Cherry pruning is essential for the full development of a woody plant and good fruiting.
Distinguish between the first pruning of cherries and the following. What is the difference between the two named types and how exactly to carry out the trimming procedure, we will consider further.
Pruning cherries for the first time, or starting to form
The first time 1-2-year-old cherries are pruned in the first decade of June. This is done in order to increase the number of branches of the lower tier, to reduce the growth processes at the top of the crown and, of course, to achieve the main goal - early fruiting.
After the formation process, 4-6 basic branches of the lower tier of the tree remain, in the second in a row - about 2-3, in the third - 2, no more. Moreover, the inter-tier distance should be approximately 70-85 cm.
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For the first time, pruning is done like this:
For a developed seedling
- if the seedling is quite well developed and has 4-6 branches that are oriented in different directions, and the angle they form with the conductor is more than 45 degrees, then the lower branches are reduced to 50-60 cm;
- then you should go to the shoots located above. They need to be cut so that they are approximately at the height of the lower tier, while the central shoot of this level is 15 centimeters higher. Since the branches do not exceed 60 cm, their length is reduced by half or a third of the length at this particular level is removed.
For seedlings with few side branches
What is meant by a small number of branches? No more than 2-3. Pruning such seedlings assumes that the branches will be shortened by 25 cm on average.
This is done to enhance the growth of new shoots, which will later become the skeletal (base) branches of the lower tier. Pruning trees with a one-sided crown is based on the same principles.
What you need to know in both cases
The cut, when the branches are shortened, is carried out on the outer kidney, directed to the periphery, on the central conductor, on the contrary, on the inner one.
Subsequent pruning, or continued crown formation
Provided that the seedling is developing quite well, it is necessary to remove all the leaves in the area of the trunk.
They will only force the plant to waste nutrients to form new shoots. There is, however, one exception: in underdeveloped seedlings, buds can be left in the trunk zone.
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General rules for pruning:
- next year, rapidly developing woody plants will form skeletal branches of the 1-2 order of branching. In most cases, sweet cherry branches only at the tips of the branches or at the point of reduction, while forming 4-5 good shoots. In such a situation, the cut is carried out on the most horizontal branch, oriented to the periphery of the crown, and other branches are shortened by 10-12 cm.
- branches that grow directly inside the crown and run parallel to most branches, and also have an angle of departure less than 60 degrees, should be cut into a ring.
- the reduction in the length of the shoot in each tier is carried out along the length of the shoot, which is a continuation of the weakest lower skeletal (base) branch. The "reference" escape itself is not shortened in any case!
Those shoots that are located above are cut to 40-55 cm, horizontal, as well as those below, up to 70-85 cm.
- the central conductor, if it is highly developed, is recommended to be transferred to another, weaker shoot. To do this, it is shortened 15 centimeters higher than the slices of the skeletal branches.
Cropping is done as follows:
- the main branches of the lower tier are necessary for the establishment of branches of the second order. This bookmark is made at a distance of 30-70 cm from the trunk and is intended to direct the branches to the periphery of the crown. If the lateral shoots are longer than the continuation of the skeletal (base) branch, then they should be shortened. And if their length is less than 40-50 cm, then the branches are not shortened, and they are wrapped in bouquet branches.
- the laying of the second tier is carried out at a distance of about 75 cm from the initial tier. For this purpose, 2-4 shoots are selected, having an angle of departure from the cherry trunk of 50-60 degrees. In addition, these shoots should be equally directed in all directions. For their shortening, such a level is chosen as the height of the shoots of the extensions of the skeletal branches of the initial tier. For a central shoot, add 15-20 cm to this level and shorten it;
- the branches of the third tier are formed in the same way as the branches of the second tier. With the only difference: they are laid, respectively, at a level of 55 cm from the second tier.
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Final trimming, or completion of the formation
As a rule, the formation of the crown is completed in the fifth or sixth year. At this time, as well as in the following 4 years, it is only necessary to remove the shoots directed inward and are too tall, and also to thin out the crown to a minimum.