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Pruning is an obligatory, regular procedure for caring for grapes, which is carried out both in summer and in autumn. It helps to increase the fertility of the grape bush.
This is the procedure necessary for the correct formation of the bush. In this article, we will talk in detail about the rules for pruning grapes, about when and how to carry it out, and what subtleties must be taken into account in this case.
Back in the days of the Roman Empire, vineyard owners noticed that if some animal devoured a grape bush, then it will grow even better and give larger, tasty fruits than the remaining untouched plants.
Over time, the grape pruning technology was invented and improved..
Although its main meaning remains the same - it facilitates the care of the grape bush, provides shelter for the winter and harvest, and also helps to increase the size of the berries and accelerate their ripening.
The meaning of the procedure and the time for its implementation
The point of pruning grape bushes is the timely shortening or removal of some shoots, as well as the dried part of the crown. In the absence of pruning, the grapes take on a wild look, bearing fruit less and less... At the same time, many clusters are formed on the plant, but they are all small in size with small, tasteless berries.
However, pruning tends to weaken the bush, so it is important to feel in moderation when doing it. For example, the result of excessive removal of branches on a young plant may be its oppression, as well as a delay in the onset of fruiting.
Despite the fact that fewer shoots on the grapes lead to an increase in the strength of each of them, this gardening technique reduces the strength of the entire bush and its resistance to various external conditions. Concerning there are special rules for pruning at certain times of the year.
Pruning grapes in autumn
Pruning of grapes in autumn is done after the first frost, when there is practically no foliage left on the vine.
It is recommended to carry out the procedure for pruning grape bushes at this particular time, especially those vines that are covered with the onset of the cold season, since high-quality pruning allows you to even better cover the plants and protect them from frost.
Trimming starts with one fruit sleeve. In the summertime, each bud on it gives a grape cluster, as well as a vine - a long branch. When pruning in the fall, only one vine should be left on the sleeve, which is closest to the base of the plant, and a replacement twig.
The vine will show the best fruiting from this year, the thickness of which is not less than 7-8 millimeters.... When removing shoots, it is recommended to leave about 6-12 buds on it, depending on its length. There should be no more than three buds on the replacement knot.
The cut is best done through the knot - a kind of tubercle on the shoot. In a similar way, each sleeve is trimmed on a grape bush.
Pruning grapes in summer
In summer, pruning grapes is inherently not a standard procedure. At this time, shoots are only pinched on the bushes, dry, unnecessary branches are broken etc.
These actions are more of a preventive nature. They are aimed at preventing a number of diseases, at increasing the fertility of the plant, at ensuring the availability of useful elements. This procedure is aimed at creating favorable conditions for the ripening of berries.
In springtime, it is not worth pruning, since with the onset of heat, the movement of sap in all plants increases.... Only in one case is the implementation of this procedure encouraged - if the grapes are young and have not yet borne fruit. We are talking about the seedlings planted last fall.
How and what to consider when pruning:
- Cutting is best done with a sharp pruner, as grapes are sensitive to "wounds".
- When pruning, try to keep all the "wounds" on the same side of the branch and located at a great distance from each other.
- Last year's shoots are recommended to be cut in the middle of the internode.
- When removing a perennial branch, leave a twig about three centimeters long. A few months after pruning, when it dries, it should also be carefully removed flush with the trunk.
- Leave two-year-old shoots for fruiting.
- In the case of a horizontal arrangement of the shoot, it is easier to get rid of the shoots from the buds that are directed downward.
Information on the correct pruning of grapes is useful for every gardener who has this perennial plant on his site.
The motivation for performing this procedure is simple - rational, technical and timely removal of unnecessary shoots, foliage contributes to an increase in the flow of nutrients to the fruiting brushes, which leads to an increase in the quantity and quality of fruits.