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Nasturtium from the Capuchin family (or nasturtium) is a popular, unpretentious plant in decorative floriculture.
There are about 50 types of nasturtium.
The most famous varieties of nastrutia:
- large - with bright flowers-caps;
- cultural - with large flowers and creeping stems;
- bush - used in decorative borders, containers, vases.
Gardeners use this flower to create unique flower arrangements. It is difficult to find a garden without nasturtium. In addition, it is grown on window sills and balconies. Many people know her smell from childhood.
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Planting nasturtium rules
To plant nasturtium, the following conditions must be met:
Choose a bright place - preferably in the sun, you can in partial shade under a tree. If there is not enough light for the flower, its shoots will become stunted, and flowering will not occur.
The soil should be moderately fertile, drained, with a slightly acidic environment. Fertile, organically fertilized soil contributes to a large amount of green mass, but the plant does not bloom well.
If you prefer the seedling method, keep in mind that the plant is very painful to suffer damage to the roots. Therefore, seedlings should be grown in separate containers, preferably in peat cups. It is better to sow seeds in 2-3 pieces in one glass in April.
When growing it, a good light regime must be provided, otherwise the seedlings will stretch out, and when planting they will hurt and will not bloom. With proper care, seedlings will appear in 2 weeks. It is necessary to plant seedlings in early June directly with an earthen clod so as not to damage the roots.
When using the seedless method, nasturtium seeds should be placed in water up to +50 degrees for 20 minutes before sowing, and then soaked for a day.
Make holes 2 cm deep at a distance of 25-30 cm from each other. Dip 2-3 seeds into each hole. The sowing period is the end of May, if there is no frost, otherwise the seedlings will die at temperatures below 0 degrees.
To accelerate the onset of flowering, it is necessary to shed the soil with hot water at 45-50 degrees before sowing. After sowing, cover the area with a non-woven material, and overnight on top with a plastic wrap. Covering material is also recommended to be used during a cold snap.
It should be remembered that nasturtium is photophilous and thermophilic, afraid of strong winds and frosts.
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Growing nasturtium in your area
To grow beautiful flowers of nasturtium, you need to fulfill the main conditions - watering, fertilizing, weeding.
- Watering - regular, moderate, warm water. In dry season - 4-5 liters of water per square meter. During flowering, watering must be suspended and carried out during the drying out of the earth. It should be remembered that on too moist soils, the roots rot, and the plant dies.
- Top dressing - twice a season with fertilizers such as nitrophoska.
- Weeding can be replaced by mulching, that is, cover the area near the plant with a layer of material: peat, straw, fallen leaves, etc.
Young plants should appear in the first half of June. Flowering usually occurs one and a half to two months after planting and continues until autumn frosts.
If you want to extend the flowering period, remove those flowers that have faded. This is how new ones are formed.
Seed collection is carried out from the fruit that appears in the place of the flower. It is better to collect them as they ripen, while making sure that self-seeding does not occur. Fallen seeds can even hibernate in the soil, maintaining their germination capacity for four years.
Nasturtium is very sensitive to transplantation. It must be carried out very carefully so that the earthen lump is not disturbed. The plant often withers after transplanting.
Diseases of nasturtium
Nasturtium is susceptible to several diseases:
- leaf spot - the appearance on the leaves of small dots with red edges, which subsequently cover the entire leaf;
- bacterial wilting - weakening of the lower leaves with further wilting;
- rust - the appearance of small black or brown spots, then developing into bulging pads;
- gray rot - the formation of gray-brown spots on some parts of the plant;
- mosaic - the appearance of a mosaic pattern of green spots on the leaves, as a result of which growth slows down.
If nasturtium has undergone one of the diseases, the plant must be removed, the damaged parts must be burned, then treated with chemical or bacteriological preparations. Bacteriological are more harmless to humans and plants.
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The most popular among gardeners is an annual plant - climbing nasturtium. The height of nasturtium reaches three meters. Most often, it is planted along walls, fences, around gazebos, on balconies. It blooms especially beautifully from the beginning of summer to the first autumn frosts.
The flower propagates in two ways:
- seedling - by growing seedlings in pots (3 seeds in one pot);
- seedless - by sowing seeds in open ground (2-4 in one hole 2 cm deep at a distance of 30-40 cm or one seed every 10 cm).
The plant does not need strong watering, prefers dry, slightly humid soil. You can feed this nasturtium variety in the same way as other varieties.
Flowers and leaves of climbing nasturtium not only decorate the garden, they are also used as decoration for various dishes and for preparing salads. The fruit can be pickled and used in place of capers.
Growing nasturtium is within the power of any gardener, even a beginner. This plant not only decorates the garden, gazebos, balconies and other places, but also has medicinal properties. With its help they treat:
- kidney stone disease;
- skin rashes;
Nasturtium is rich in vitamin C, provitamin A and phytoncides, and has a strong antimicrobial effect. And dishes with its use have a unique taste and dietary properties.
Thus, nasturtium helps in the treatment of many diseases and also brings aesthetic benefits.