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If you decide to grow mushrooms at home, it is highly recommended to start with oyster mushrooms. These mushrooms are delicious and best suited for home cultivation.
They give birth quickly and are unpretentious, a little more than a month passes from planting to harvest.
Up to 10 kg of mushrooms can be removed per month. They can grow in almost any type of wood - leaves, stems, coffee peels and shells, sunflower husks, cotton seed husks, dry crushed sugarcane fibers, corn stalks and stalks, cereal straw, paper and sawdust.
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Growing oyster mushrooms at home
To grow oyster mushrooms at home, it is best to use straw of barley, rye, wheat or sunflower husks as a substrate. Any substrate must be clean, dry, odorless, mildew-free and free of impurities. Consider using straw as a substrate as it is considered the most popular.
Choose wide straws, they should be porous, not infected and not wet. It needs to be crushed or flattened.
It is recommended to purchase straw from the same manufacturer if you are not able to purchase the annual rate right away.
If the straw has a thick waxy coating and is fresh, soak it for an additional 12 hours.
- Water treatment is widespread in the home growing of oyster mushrooms. Tamp the straw in a barrel or saucepan, cover with warm water and heat to 65 degrees. Don't boil the straw.
- Keep it at this temperature for three hours, drain the water and cool the straw to 25 degrees.
- Spread the substrate on any surface at an angle and remove excess water. Once you reach the required temperature, you can start planting.
- For planting, you need to prepare a clean plastic bag and a high-quality seed mycelium. The width of the bag should be no more than 50 cm.
- Pour the substrate into the bottom of the bag, tamp it down and lay a layer of mycelium. Continue this way until you have completely filled the entire package. There should be no free cavities in the film, while the planting rate should be 3-5% of the total weight of the substrate.
- Place bags up to 15 kg on the racks.
- After three days, make about seven holes with a diameter of five centimeters, so that the fruiting bodies of the fungus will form in the future. Store bags in a room with temperatures up to 18 degrees. No lighting or ventilation required.
- Fruiting begins in 16 days. From now on, moisten the bags once a day. Remember to ventilate the area as the mushrooms will emit a lot of carbon dioxide. The air should be humid and the room should be lit.
- Ripening will begin in a week, the head of the mushroom will turn brown and then brighten.
- One bag can collect about 4 kg of mushrooms. The mushrooms rest for two weeks and the cycle repeats again. Up to three harvests can be harvested from the bag and up to 6 cycles are carried out per year.
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Growing champignons at home
To grow this variety of mushrooms, a cool room should be prepared, it can be a cellar or basement with the ability to maintain high humidity.
This stage in the cultivation of champignons is considered to be the most laborious. Compost is the main component of the substrate. It can be prepared from horse manure and wheat or rye straw in a percentage ratio of 80 to 20.
Instead of horse manure, you can use cow or poultry manure, but the yield may decrease slightly. Prepare the substrate under a canopy outdoors. The room can also be used, but it must be well ventilated, as moisture, ammonia and carbon dioxide will be released during fermentation.
For one hundred kg of straw, take 2 kg of superphosphate, the same amount of urea, 5 kg of chalk and 8 kg of gypsum. In general, you get 300 kg of substrate and they can lay mycelium, the area of which is up to three square meters. Soak the straw in the tank for 24 hours.
Stack wet straw and manure in a stack in layers. The result should be about 4 layers of both components. Each layer must be additionally moistened, urea and superphosphate must be added gradually. Then mix the whole bunch 4 times and add the rest of the elements.
Fermentation will begin and the temperature will rise to 70 degrees. After 22 days, the compost will be ready.
Inoculation of the substrate with mycelium of fungi
As a seed for growing mushrooms, it is necessary to choose only high-quality sterile mycelium (mycelium) grown in special laboratories. The industry can produce compost and grain mycelium.
Compost mycelium is less productive, but also less exposed to external negative influences. Use 500 g of compost mycelium per square meter.
Be sure to pasteurize and heat the substrate before inoculation. When you press on the substrate, it should spring slightly, then you will be sure that you did everything right.
Inoculation consists of a 4 cm deepening of the compost or grain mycelium the size of an egg. Place the holes in a checkerboard pattern with a distance of 20 to 25 cm.If you decide to use grain mycelium, you can scatter it over the surface and sprinkle the substrate with a layer of 5 cm on top. The air humidity should be up to 95%.
Cover the moisture-keeping boxes with newspaper or burlap. Spray the surface of the chosen material carefully so that no water gets into the mycelium or substrate.
Do not forget to control the temperature, it should be 20-27 degrees. Raise the temperature or ventilate the room if it is lower or higher than recommended.
10 days after the growth of the mycelium, cover the surface with a 4 cm layer of cover soil. The cover soil contains 9 parts of peat and 1 part of chalk or 1 part of chalk, 5 parts of peat and 4 parts of garden land. About 45 casing soil will be needed for an area of 1 square meter.
Reduce the temperature to 17 degrees 4 days after covering the casing layer. Moisten the surface regularly. Do not forget to ventilate the room, but make sure that there are no drafts.
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Do not eat overripe and flabby mushrooms with brown plates, as you may be poisoned. Do not cut the mushrooms, but carefully twist them, then sprinkle the surface of the holes with casing soil, but not too abundantly.
In general, fruiting will last from 8 to 14 weeks and during this time you will have the opportunity to harvest up to 7 waves of the crop. The interval between waves can be about a week. From the first three waves, you can get about 70% of the total harvest.
In the first and in the second case, growing mushrooms does not cause any difficulties. They are not too whimsical, they only require strict adherence to the instructions.
It is worth trying a little for the sake of a gorgeous harvest of delicious oyster mushrooms or champignons, besides, growing mushrooms can, with the right approach, turn into an excellent business.