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Chrysanthemums have been known in the gardening culture for a long time. In China, these flowers were grown already in the 6th century. AD, not only for decorative, but also for medical purposes. In Asian countries, chrysanthemums were cooked and eaten.
In Europe, starting from the 17th century. (in Russia since the 19th century), bred in greenhouses and in the open air.
Today anyone can plant these flowers in their garden. Chrysanthemum seeds are easier to grow at home than many other flowers. But for the best result, proper care of chrysanthemums is important.
Caring for chrysanthemums in the garden
From the Greek language, the name of this flower was translated as "golden-colored". The golden color of the middle of the inflorescence is one of the few features characteristic of all chrysanthemums. In general, hundreds of varieties of this plant differ in color and shape, as well as flowering time, care requirements. But there are a number of rules common to all varieties of chrysanthemums.
Firstly, these flowers do not tolerate the close location of groundwater, therefore, it is best to plant them on a hill. Chrysanthemums are sun-loving, but during and after planting they suffer from bright sunlight.
Therefore, young seedlings are recommended to be planted in the morning or evening, on a shady and slightly cloudy day.
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In sunny weather, flowers after planting must be watered and shaded with an artificial screen.
Chrysanthemums are planted in spring. The best time to plant almost all varieties is May. Sometimes chrysanthemums are planted in the fall. But work in this case takes place no later than September 15, since the flower needs time to take root.
When planting in a pit about 35-40 cm deep, a drainage layer is laid. It can be broken brick, crushed stone, gravel, coarse river sand. The soil for chrysanthemums is often mixed with vermicompost (at the rate of 18: 1 or 20: 1). The root system is usually located parallel to the soil, so chrysanthemums are not deeply buried when planting.
For the same reason, it is recommended to plant large varieties at a distance of at least half a meter from each other. Low flowers with not very spreading inflorescences can be planted at 25-35 centimeters.
Chrysanthemums are considered unpretentious to care for. Nevertheless, they need to be constantly watered, fed, loosened around the trunk circle, protected from rodents, and some varieties must be mulched. For the winter, chrysanthemums are covered with a rigid (frame) shelter and polyethylene.
In January, the bushes are recommended to be transplanted and transferred to a summer veranda or to a house, where some varieties, subject to cuttings in June, can continue to bloom. Chrysanthemum houses are kept in wide pots or wooden boxes. To nourish the root system, the stems of already faded plants are cut low.
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Growing chrysanthemums from seeds and cuttings
Most often, chrysanthemums are propagated by a vegetative method (cuttings, separation of the root sprout from the uterine stem) or growing from seeds. When propagating from a bush, young shoots are separated from the old spring, when the frost ends.
Saplings with already developed roots are immediately planted and watered. For better rooting, a certain amount of root is added to the solution. Chrysanthemums are also cut in spring. Shoots for this are taken up to 15 cm long.
Chrysanthemums are grown from seeds in March. For planting, loose moist garden soil is taken, which is lightly sprayed on top and covered with a plastic bag.
During cultivation, the tray with chrysanthemum seeds should be in a room with a comfortable room temperature of at least 22 degrees. The soil should be neither too wet nor too dry.
It is best to periodically spray it with a spray bottle. After a week or two, the first shoots may appear in the tray.
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