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Growing beets is not as difficult as some other vegetables, since this plant, common on all continents, is cold-resistant and rather unpretentious.
In addition, she is very useful and there is always a place for her on the table.
Preparing for planting beets
You can grow beets with seeds and seedlings.
In the northern regions and with prolonged frosts, it is better to grow beets with seedlings. For this, beet seeds are planted in a substrate 30-40 days before transplanting seedlings (scheme 4 x 4 cm). Before planting in the ground, seedlings can not be dived.
Sowing seeds is carried out in spring and before winter (in this case, varieties resistant to shooting are selected - Podzimnyaya A-474, etc.). Seed preparation for spring sowing is carried out as follows:
- beet seeds must be soaked for 18-20 hours a) in water) a solution of trace elements (for 1 liter of water a teaspoon of superphosphate or a tablespoon of ash); c) in water saturated with oxygen;
- remove the seeds and rinse in clean water;
- place in a damp cloth and leave for 2-3 days at a temperature of about 20 ° C.
Seeds are sown in moist soil, into which mineral and organic fertilizers are preliminarily applied.
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For winter sowing, the soil must be dug to a depth of 20-25 cm. It is advisable to grow beets on loose, rich in organic matter soils. On clay soils, the quality and quantity of the crop decreases, the shape of the root crops is often ugly.
You can plant beets in their original place in 3-4 years. The predecessors of beets in the garden can be tomato, onion, cucumber or potatoes. It is not recommended to plant beets after carrots and cabbage.
In different regions of the country, beets are planted at different times. Although beet seeds can germinate at a temperature of + 4 ° C, the optimum temperature for germination is between + 15 ° C and + 23 ° C.
Beet seedlings can tolerate frosts down to -2 ° C. Planting seeds in insufficiently heated soil can cause the formation of peduncles on beets, which is to the detriment of root crops.
In the middle lane, sowing seeds is carried out in the middle - second half of May. By this time, the soil at a depth of 10 cm should have already warmed up to + 8 ... + 10 ° С, but moisture has not yet left the soil. The seeding depth is 2-3 cm on loamy soils and 3-4 cm on sandy soils at a seeding rate of 1.5-2 g / m².
When sowing in winter, the seeding rate is 2-3 g / m².
You need to sow beets in rows, the distance between which should be about 40 cm.In order to grow root crops that are not very large and of the same size, beets can be planted according to the scheme 10 x 10 cm.
Growing and caring for beets
Caring for beets consists in timely thinning, watering, feeding and weeding.
Since in most varieties of beets, seeds are the fruit of several seeds, the seedlings must be thinned twice:
- 1st time when two true leaves appear (while the distance between shoots should be 3-4 cm);
- 2nd time in the presence of 4 - 5 leaves and the diameter of the root crop is from 3 to 5 cm (the distance between the remaining plants should be 7 - 8 cm).
Roots pulled out during the second thinning can be used for food.
Since beets are a moisture-loving plant, it must be watered regularly:
- during seed germination;
- during the formation of the root system;
- during the formation of root crops.
The lack of moisture makes the roots woody.
Irrigation rate - 15-20 l / m². If the bed is not covered with mulch, it is imperative to loosen the soil after watering to avoid stagnant water. It is recommended to water the beets two or three times a season with salt water (1 tbsp. Salt per 10 liters of water) - this will increase the sugar content of the crop.
Watering is stopped a month before harvesting.
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In one season, feeding is carried out twice:
- apply nitrogen fertilizers after the first thinning (per 1 m² - 10 g of urea);
- potassium-phosphorus fertilizers are applied during closing in the aisles of the tops (10 g of potassium chloride and 8 g of superphosphate per 1 m²).
Instead of mineral fertilizers, you can apply ash mixed with humus or compost (3 glasses of ash per 1 m²).
It should be noted that an excess of nitrogen fertilizers leads to the accumulation of nitrates in root crops, therefore it is recommended to apply fertilizers fractionally.
Since the lack of boron, copper and molybdenum leads to decay of the heart of the root crop, these elements are recommended to be applied in the form of foliar dressings.
Poor root development and rounded yellow spots on the leaves are signs of potassium deficiency. In this case, the beets must be watered with milk of lime (80 g of potassium chloride and 200 g of fluffy lime per 10 liters of water).
Lack of sodium causes reddening of the beet tops. In this case, the leaves of the plant are watered with salt water, and the bed is sprinkled with ash.
The crop should be harvested before the onset of frost, since roots damaged by low temperatures are unsuitable for storage.
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