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Centuries ago, people learned about the high nutritional value of both beans and other legumes. Beans were then called "the meat of the poor" because they contain as much protein as meat.
Doctors now call beans "the meat of healthy people", because beans are not only nutritious, but also useful. The legume family includes many crops, with soybeans and beans being especially popular. Soy is most often processed, and beans are used just like that.
Favorable conditions for beans
Beans are a self-pollinating crop, which means that different varieties can be planted and grown at the same time in the garden. Beans are a thermophilic plant, try to choose the earliest varieties for planting and growing. They are more resilient in stressful situations and bad weather conditions. Shrub varieties ripen earlier and are more resistant to cold than curly ones.
Choose a well-lit and wind-protected area for growing beans. Beans are demanding watering. Beans need high soil moisture, but an excess of moisture is undesirable.
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The best precursors for beans are cabbage, tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, and eggplants. You should not choose the same garden bed for planting beans earlier than 3 years later.
Good neighbors for beans are carrots, beets, onions, potatoes, tomatoes, cabbage. But the ideal combination is cucumbers, in which case the legumes will bring the best harvest. Apply fertilizer to the soil to prepare the soil for digging. The following composition is perfect:
- 2 tablespoons dolomite flour;
- 1 tablespoon of ammonium nitrate;
- 1 tablespoon double superphosphate (ammophos can be used);
- half a tablespoon of potassium chloride (or potassium soda).
The calculation of fertilizer per 1 square meter of land is presented. You can also use humus at the rate of 4 kg per 1 square meter. It would be good to plant the future bed with the wings. Corn is great for this role.
Timing for planting and sowing seeds
Beans are very thermophilic. The optimum temperature for seed germination is about + 10-12 degrees. Sow so that the first shoots are not frozen. Sowing is best done after the final warmth. Most often, the best time will be the end of May and the first decade of June. Seedlings can die during frost when the temperature drops to -1 degrees.
Before sowing, sort out the seeds, remove all damaged ones. If they are too dry, you can soak the seeds in warm water for 6 hours. Then drain the water, slightly ventilate the seeds and plant in moist soil.
For even greater efficiency, before sowing, you can hold the beans for 20 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate, then soak them in an ash solution for a couple of hours.
Maintain a distance between rows of about 35-40 cm, place the seeds in a row after about 5-8 cm. Cover the crops with foil. The optimum planting depth is about 3 cm. If you plant deeper, the seeds may die during swelling.
Growing and caring for beans
The most favorable temperature for the emergence and development of beans is about 20 degrees. Young plants do not require abundant watering. Then the need for watering increases. If the soil is allowed to dry out during flowering, the beans will fall off.
2-3 dressings are carried out per season. Don't forget about weeding and loosening the soil. The first loosening is carried out when the plants reach a height of 6-7 cm. The second loosening is necessary after the appearance of the first pair of true leaves. You can immediately thin out the plants, leave a distance of about 30 cm between them.
For curly beans, install a support. Such legumes are more thermophilic than bush legumes. Good care will allow you to get a rich harvest. When the stems reach an approximate height of 2 meters, pinch off the top of the plant. This will speed up the ripening of the beans.
If you are harvesting beans for grain, then harvest them in one go. When the beans are ripe, uproot the plants, tie in bunches and dry under a canopy.
Store carefully dried seeds that will be used for planting next year in a dry room at a positive temperature. Germination lasts up to 5 years.
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Beans are easy to care for, but the results will delight you with a rich harvest!