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In a well-groomed garden with properly planted plants, conditions are not created that contribute to the development of diseases and pests, therefore, compliance with the rules of agricultural technology is the basis for the fight against diseases and pests of black currant.
Planting black currant
Black currants can be planted in the spring, before the buds have blossomed, but the optimal time for planting is in late September - early October.
The seedlings must be healthy. It is advisable to choose two-year-old seedlings with roots of 15-20 cm and ground shoots about 30-40 cm. The soil should be chosen fertile, acidic and waterlogged soils should be avoided.
For each bush, you need from 2.5 to 3 m, and the distance between the rows should be at least 2 m. The planting hole should be about 50 cm deep and at least 40 cm in diameter. When planting, seedlings should be placed at an angle.
There should be no conifers near the currant bushes.
Varieties of black currant varieties.
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Growing and caring for black currant
To prevent diseases and get a good harvest of black currant, you must:
- In the spring before bud break:
- cut out diseased and dry branches affected by the larvae of the stem gall midge and glassworm;
- Loosen the soil, apply nitrogen fertilizers, mulch the soil;
- Spray bushes and soil with nitrafen and Bordeaux liquid against pests and fungal diseases;
- Before flowering:
- spray the bushes with a 10% concentrate of karbofos emulsion against ticks (kidney and spiderweb), aphids and other pests;
- spray the bushes with Bordeaux liquid against fungal diseases;
When a small number of pests appear, it is recommended to destroy them manually (for example, it is quite easy to collect fireflies).
You can also use decoctions and infusions of insecticidal plants, which cause less damage compared to pesticides. When diseases and pests are spreading, chemical protection measures should be used.
Common diseases of black currant and the fight against them
Anthracnose, the causative agent of which is a fungus that multiplies by spores, affects young shoots, leaves, petioles and stalks of currants.
Vague brown spots with a diameter of approximately 2.5 mm appear on the leaves, in the middle of which a dark tubercle is noticeable. With the further development of anthracnose, the spots begin to merge, the leaves acquire a brown color, dry and curl upward at the edges, and then fall off.
The lower part of the shoots is exposed, ulcers appear on the shoots and petioles. In bushes affected by anthracnose, the growth of young shoots decreases, the yield decreases. Bushes heavily affected by the fungus die after 4 years.
If a disease is detected in early spring or autumn, the affected shoots are cut out. The bushes should be sprayed with nitrofen before bud break (10 liters of water per 300 g). Before flowering, after it and after harvesting, spray with Bordeaux liquid.
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With septoria or white spot, premature leaf fall, poor shoot growth and partial death, and bud drying are observed. The causative agent of the disease is a mushroom.
When a disease occurs in June, numerous rounded or angular brown spots appear on the leaves, which then brighten in the center, and the border remains brown.
Later, black dots appear on the spots, in which the spores of the fungus are located. After the spores fly out, an ulcer forms at the spot. Currant bushes are massively infected at the end of summer.
In early spring, before the buds bloom, the soil and bushes are sprayed with nitrafen. With the development of the disease, Bordeaux liquid is used.
Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that affects all parts of the plant. The damaged parts of the currants are first covered with a powdery white bloom, which can be easily erased, and over time it thickens and resembles a dark brown felt.
The affected shoots dry up and die off, the fruits do not develop and fall prematurely, the leaves curl. Plants die within several years with severe damage.
Bushes and soil should be sprayed with iron sulfate (10 liters of water per 300 g). When a powdery coating appears, spray the currants with a solution of soap and soda ash. Freshly prepared bleach is also used (10 liters of water for 1-2 tablespoons).
Processing should be carried out 2 weeks before harvesting. After picking berries, use preparations of foundationol, sulfur, 10% emulsion of the preparation Topaz.
It is also good to use an infusion of rotted manure (forest floor, hay, greenhouse land). For the infusion, 1 part of manure and 3 parts of water are taken, infused for 3 days, three times diluted with water and filtered.
Currants are sprayed with infusion in cloudy weather in 3 stages: before flowering, after and before leaf fall.
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Reverse or double currant is a viral disease that affects the entire plant and leads to the infertility of the currant. It is transmitted through planting material and kidney mites.
It manifests itself in the deformation of leaves, which become elongated, three-lobed, with pointed ends, the number of veins decreases. The leaves lose their specific smell, they can acquire a purple hue. No fruits are formed.
Uproot and burn diseased bushes. Systematically fight kidney mites.
Before planting, lignified cuttings should be kept in hot water (about 45 ° C) for 15 minutes.
Goblet rust, caused by spores of the fungus in the spring, is characterized by the appearance of orange pads on young shoots, leaves, flowers and fruits, which by the end of May resemble an accumulation of goblets. Further development of the fungus occurs on sedge, where the spores are transported by the wind. Affected flowers, leaves and berries fall off.
Spray currant bushes with Bordeaux liquid three times. In summer, mow sedge, collect fallen leaves and remove affected shoots.
Currant leaves are affected by columnar rust, which manifests itself in small yellowish spots and bright orange pads on the underside of the leaf. With a disease, the leaves fall off prematurely, which leads to a decrease in the next year's harvest. Currants are more often affected, near which conifers grow.
Spray with Bordeaux liquid before and after flowering and after harvesting.
Regularly caring for the black currant bushes, removing the affected shoots in time and treating the soil and bushes in a timely manner with drugs that prevent the development of diseases and the reproduction of pests, you will be able to harvest an excellent harvest every year.