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To get an early and rich eggplant harvest, you need to sow seeds for seedlings on time. The approximate date is no later than mid-February, regardless of the type of soil. Many sow eggplant seeds in March or early April, with the result that the plants only bloom in late summer. The vegetative period for eggplants lasts more than a hundred days.
Before planting seeds, they must be checked for germination. To do this, it is enough to carry out the following procedure: take ten eggplant seeds, put them in small bags, and then place them in warm water for twenty-four hours. Then remove them from the water, put the bags in the dishes and put them in a warm place, for example, not far from the battery. Keep the bags moist. In five days, you will know if the seeds will sprout or not. Even if out of fifteen seeds only seven sprouted, then they are suitable for sowing.
Protecting eggplant seeds from pests
Before planting, the seeds must also be disinfected in a strong solution of pharmaceutical manganese for half an hour. Then rinse with water and soak in a nutrient solution. To obtain it, you need to dissolve one teaspoon of wood ash in one liter of water. Instead of ash, liquid sodium humate or nitrophoska is suitable.
Seeds in bags are dipped into the solution for twenty-four hours. The temperature of the solution should be at least +28 degrees. Thanks to this processing, eggplants will grow faster, and you will be able to harvest earlier than others.
Now the bags with seeds need to be removed from the solution, sprinkled with water a little, put on a plate and left for two days in a warm place. The seeds should hatch. After using such seeds, they will sprout in five to six days.
Tips on how to properly grow eggplant seedlings.
See here for tips on growing and caring for tomatoes.
The heading is dedicated to growing vegetables in the open field https://rusfermer.net/ogorod/plodovye-ovoshhi/vyrashhivanie-v-otkrytom-grunte
To harden the seeds, they can be exposed to contrasting temperatures.
This is done like this: For two days, the seeds are placed in a refrigerator, the temperature in which is no more than five degrees, then they are placed in a warm place at a temperature of + 20 for a day, after which they are again in the refrigerator for two days. From the refrigerator, seeds are sown directly into boxes. Remember to keep the seeds in the bags moist at all times.
Eggplant care and parasite prevention
Eggplant can be grown in different soil. Here are some of the formulations you can use:
- Two parts of manure and one part of land;
- One part of sawdust, two parts of peat and the same amount of humus;
- Two parts of humus and peat;
- Two pieces of land and three pieces of humus;
- The most convenient way is to buy ready-made soil "Living Earth" in the store.
Now you can add one spoonful of wood ash and superphosphate to one of the selected soil mixtures, mix them thoroughly and add to the box. Leave at least two centimeters from the soil to the top of the box to prevent soil leaching during watering.
The soil mixture must be poured into the box with an eight centimeter layer. Then level it, compact it and make holes at a distance of five centimeters from each other. Remember to water the soil. Place the seeds in the holes two centimeters apart, about one and a half centimeters deep. Then fill in the holes, and slightly compact the soil.
The seed box is left for two days in a warm place. After two days, the soil is watered with three tablespoons of water in each box.
So the seedlings will sprout quickly.
For five to six days, the seedlings must be monitored, and as soon as they rise, the box must be moved to the sunniest place in the apartment.
There they must stand for about a week so that their roots get stronger, after which the temperature can be raised to +23 degrees during the day and +19 degrees in cloudy weather.
The seedlings should be in the box until the first two true flowers are produced. This usually takes about a month. During this time, the seedlings need to be watered once a week. Over-watering is not worth it, otherwise there is a high risk of infection of plants with a black leg.
The water temperature should be about +25 degrees. First, the water must be defended. Top dressing before transplanting plants into another container is performed once from the ratio: ten liters of water per one spoon of calcium nitrate solution.
After two days, the boxes must be turned towards the window so that more light comes to the plants.
After two real leaves peep out of the ground, future eggplants are ready for transplantation. Seedlings at this time are much easier to replant than during the appearance of cotyledons.
Before starting the picking procedure, the seedlings are watered three hours before. It is not recommended to get seedlings from dry soil, since all the soil will crumble from the roots.
You can transplant seedlings into milk bags, peat pots, plastic cups, etc. The dimensions of the container should be 10x10 cm. The soil mixture, which was used for sowing seeds, is poured into it. Then it is watered at the rate of: 10 liters of water per glass of liquid mullein or one tablespoon of urea.
After the pots are filled with the nutrient mixture, make holes in the middle and plant the plant down to the first leaves on the stem.
Seedlings in pots are placed near the window, while covering it with a newspaper for a couple of days to create conditions of moderate lighting. Seedling care is feeding, watering, hardening and temperature control.
Water the soil regularly. Water the entire soil for the first time in a week. To prevent water from stagnating in the pot, holes must be made in its bottom. If you pour too much water, the plants may stall. Water with settled water, six days after transplanting.
Try to water and feed the plants at about the same time. For example, smash an egg shell and fill it with three liters of hot water. Let it brew for about six days. Stir the resulting solution every day. When ready, strain through cheesecloth and water. The same process can be repeated using the pulp of the tea you drink.
If you notice that the growth process is moving very slowly, and the leaves of the plant have turned green, then prepare the following composition: dissolve one glass of mullein and a teaspoon of urea in ten liters of water. Feed the eggplants.
Pour some wood ash into the soil twice during the entire maturation of the eggplant. One teaspoon is enough for three pots. Drain the ash carefully so that it does not get on the plants.
For the plants to take root better, immediately after picking, provide them with warm indoor air.
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We plant eggplant seedlings in open ground
It is necessary to transplant eggplants into open ground when the seedlings give from eight to twelve leaves. It should also have a strong root system and mature buds. If eggplants can be grown in a greenhouse, then do it from mid-May, maybe a little earlier.
In open ground, seedlings are planted in early June. The beds should be securely covered with foil. Before planting, the soil in the pots must be watered. This is necessary so that a moist lump of earth remains on the roots of the plants.
Remember: two weeks before planting in the open field, the seedlings must be hardened. To do this, you need to take it out into the open air, the temperature of which is not lower than 10 ° C, and at the same time protect it from sunlight and wind. Increase the time the seedlings are in the fresh air every day.
The main diseases of eggplant seedlings
To prevent the inevitable death of the plant, it is necessary to have a good understanding of the causes of the disease, as well as to know its distinctive signs.
The most common eggplant disease is "blackleg"... The reason for this is a fungus that causes the root collar of the plant to darken. If urgent measures are not taken, then the disease will cover the entire flower, and it will gradually fade. In places of high humidity, this disease spreads in a matter of hours.
It is impossible to cure a plant after a black leg injury, but the disease can be prevented.
The affected flower must be urgently removed, and the soil in this place must be disinfected with bleach. Seedlings must be thinned regularly. The most dangerous are bacterial diseases such as Bacterial black spot... The whole plant suffers from it.
It is covered with black spots, with yellow edging on the sides. The spots begin to grow until they cover the entire plant. If this happens, then the eggplants are unfit for food. To prevent the appearance of the disease, spray the plants with the bacterial preparation "Zaslon" - three caps per liter of water.
Other illnesses include:
- gray rot;
Eggplant seedling pests
The most notorious pest of eggplant is Colorado beetle... And he loves them more than potato stalks.
The second most popular is spider mite... The bush from his activity becomes perforated with small holes. A spider mite can completely suck out all the juices from a plant if not taken care of. After two to three weeks, new offspring of pests are born.
Loves eggplant and aphid... It also sucks the juices out of the plant. To prevent its appearance, it is necessary during the flowering stage to spray the eggplant with such chemicals as: "Aktara" or "karbofos". They are, in fact, suitable for the destruction of all pests.
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But in order to get rid of naked slugs, it is necessary to keep the planting clean, pollinate the grooves with fresh lime and regularly loosen the soil.