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A bee, like all insects, does not have a skeleton of a body. Its role is played by a complex skin, which includes chitin.
The body consists of three parts: head, breast and abdomen. On the head are two convex compound eyes, which in turn consist of several thousand eyes, and three simple eyes located at the crown of the head.
The organs of touch and smell are located on the articulated antennae, which are located at the top of the head. The mouth has a lower and upper lip, jaw, and proboscis. With their jaws, bees can capture other insects, pull out various crumbs from the hive, and gnaw the lids of combs. The proboscis is intended for feeding the bee, sucking in nectar and performing feeding functions.
The length of the proboscis is of no small importance. Thus, the Mountain Caucasian bee has a proboscis up to 7 mm long, while ours, the Central Russian, has only 6.2-6.4 mm. Therefore, a southern woman, for example, is able to take nectar even in red clover flowers, while our northern ones cannot.
The bee's head rotates freely in different directions, almost 180 °. This allows her to easily gnaw cocoons in narrow honeycomb cells and perform all types of work both in flowers and in a hive.
Legs and wings are attached to the breast, which consists of four rings, segments. Bees have two pairs of wings and six articulated legs. The abdomen contains the heart, intestines, respiratory organs, honey goiter, bowel movements and stinging. Due to the complex annular device, the abdomen has extreme mobility and the ability to increase and decrease its size within significant limits.
In the abdomen there are wax-producing mirrors, from which wax is released, but only in the summer. Queens and drones do not have such mirrors.
The legs of bees have a complex structure and consist of a trochanter, thigh, tibia and legs with claws. With the help of the swivel, the legs are attached to the breast and - make it possible to move in different directions.
On a rough surface, bees are held by their claws, and on a smooth surface by suction pads.
The strength in the muscles of the legs allows them to support 10-20 times the weight of a bee. This is clearly seen when the bees hang in clusters. With their legs, bees are able to clean antennae, hairs covering the body, carry pollen, folded in the form of a ball, in a special basket located on the back leg.
Bees have two wings on each side. The wings are transparent and tough. Stiffness is given to them by longitudinal and transverse veins. During flight, the wings fold on both sides and form a solid plate.
Hooks and folds help keep them closed. The hooks are located on the back of the front fenders, and the folds are on the front of the rear fenders.
When lifting, lowering and flying, the bee is able to change the position of the wings within wide limits.
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The average flight speed of a bee is 60-65 km / h, but when a bee is flying loaded with nectar or pollen, its flight can be twice as slow. Depending on the need, especially when the swarm leaves, bees can cover a distance of up to 20 kilometers or more.
In a normal flight to collect pollen and nectar, this distance usually does not exceed 3-5 km. Science has proven that the productive flight of a bee (i.e. when a bee, having taken nectar in a flower, brought it entirely to the hive, did not use up anything for its food), usually does not exceed 2 km.
There is a sting in the back of the abdomen. It consists of two stylets moving back and forth on a sled. In the normal state, the sting is retracted into the abdomen.
With the intention of stinging someone, the sting on the sled moves outward, I am a bee, by bending the abdomen, plunges the sting into the skin of warm-blooded animals. Due to the fact that the stilettos end with notches, similar to the notches of harpoons, the bee is not able to pull them out of the skin. As a result, during takeoff, part of the internal organs comes off along with the sting, so the bee that stung a person or animal dies.
When stinging their own kind, i.e. insects, the sting harpoons break through the chitinous shell of the insect's body, making a ragged hole in it, from which the stylet harpoons come out freely and the bee does not die.
The sting remaining in the skin of warm-blooded animals continues to impulsively penetrate the skin due to the muscles located at the sting itself. And, if you do not touch it, it will almost completely disappear under the skin within a few minutes, and then the tumor in this place will be much larger than if it was immediately removed.
The bee venom is in a special reservoir, where it comes from the venom glands and further along the stylets into the wound. Bee venom is widely used in medicine. A lot of special literature has been written and published about this.
For the normal life of bees, like other insects and animals, food, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and also mineral salts are needed.
Bee protein feed is obtained from plant pollen. It is necessary for the growth and development of larvae, as well as for the work of the wax glands of the bee.
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