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There are different varieties of peppers and they differ from one another on the basis of
- Shape: may be elongated, cylindrical, square, triangular, cigarette etc.
- Color: we can have green, yellow or red peppers. The colors of the Mediterranean!
- Type of consumption: how do you want to use your peppers? Do you intend to dry them? Save them? For each use, there is the pepper for you.
Among the most common varieties, we can mention: the exquisite Yolo Wonder, type A and L, which presents itself with a pleasant square shape with verda-yellow pulp during ripening. Then we find the Asti d'Asti square and the Asti Rosso square; finally the Nocera Giallo and the Nocera, also this, Rosso.
The pepper is a plant suitable almost exclusively for warm-temperate climates. Particularly weak compared to low temperatures, it is a vegetable that requires specific temperatures more than any other. In fact, keep in mind that for a profitable cultivation of the pepper, a thermal oscillation is needed that goes from a minimum of eighteen degrees at night to a maximum of twenty-eight daytime degrees. Never expose pepper crops to excessively high temperatures: exceeding thirty-five degrees Celsius can result in severe malformation of the vegetable, as well as the classic "scotture" or sunburn if it is too exposed to sunlight. As mentioned the temperature is very important for the development of this vegetable and it must be remembered that, in the case of temperatures below 15 ° C, the plant will not sprout.
The ideal soil for a good and satisfying cultivation of the pepper is of medium texture, deep, very fertile. The soil must be well drained and contain a particular element in considerable quantities: calcium. The roots of this vegetable, with respect to the development of the same in its external part, are not very developed.The pepper is a type of vegetable that is particularly sensitive to the level of salinity and mineralization of the soil. With a piaccametro, which can be purchased in the most common gardening stores at low prices, you can evaluate the pH level of the soil, which in this case must be between 6.5 and 7, therefore an average pH. It should be checked that the substrate allows proper drainage, so as to avoid water stagnation that can cause radical rot.Fertilization and care
The pepper is a type of vegetable particularly fond of nutritive elements, and therefore the fertilization of the soil in which it must grow must necessarily be abundant and rich in nourishment. Consider that for every ten square meters of cultivation, it will be necessary to use on average thirty-five to forty-five kilograms of mature manure (manure), or, alternatively, of equally macerated compost.
The pepper requires a considerable quantity of microelements, in particular magnesium: if your soil is scarce as regards this element, you can run for cover spreading it with lithotamnium or, if you want, with rock flour.
Like many other vegetables, the pepper is rather sensitive to water scarcity. Stressing it in this way could damage it irreparably. It is therefore necessary to intervene with frequent watering, both in the seedbed and in the period following the transplant. In the seedbed, for example, you will have to water every three days or four, while in the field an abundant irrigation is sufficient once every week.
One of the most suitable cultivation methods for pepper cultivation, to protect it from attack by weeds, is the practice of scerbatura. To oxygenate the soil at its best, frequent hoeing may be useful.
The earthing up will be necessary when, a few weeks after the transplant, we want to stimulate the formation of the root apparatus, at the same time protecting the vegetable from the attack of fungal diseases.
Pepper cultivation: Sowing
Due to the peculiar thermal needs of this vegetable and its prolonged sprouting (even 10-15 days), the immediate sowing of the pepper in the open field is very rare. Indeed, it is much more likely to occur in seedbeds. Depending on the climatic zones, the sowing of the peppers can be carried out during the late winter season (January, February) or in February-March. Of course, if you live in warm areas, you will anticipate the sowing while on the contrary, if you live in cold areas, you will move on as described above.
The sowing is made in broadcaster, with lines spaced at least ten or fifteen centimeters. Otherwise, even better if you put every single seed in a small container of peat or soil.
If you would like to try your hand at sowing directly in the field, then sow in postarelle: place two or three seeds each and place them between them of fifty or sixty centimeters.
In both types of sowing, it may be convenient to plant seeds that have already germinated: to do this, place them in the water for an internal day. Once extracted from the water, it is necessary to put them in a very warm environment for a week. When you see the radicle tick, your seeds will be ready.
It is advisable to carry out the transplant only when, two months after sowing, the plant has five well-formed leaves. And please: it is of fundamental importance to make sure that the frosts do not occur.
The planting of the seedlings, based on the climatic zones and environmental conditions, will be carried out from March to June.