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The place of origin is generally the woody or rural one. But it is possible to obtain good soil by decomposition and maceration of organic and / or vegetable waste (compost) which, once mixed with other elements, can be used as a rich substrate in its own garden.
The soil can be created with one's own hands or be purchased in the most common garden centers, and its composition can vary according to the needs of the grower, the plants, the soil to which it will be applied. Substantially, however, it is possible to summarize the three main elements that constitute it. First of all we have the vegetable component, composed of the residues of foliage and material of vegetable origin. Then the clay component which, as the word itself says, is composed mainly of clay or silt. This component will give compactness and structure to the soil, making it, if well proportioned, soft but effective in effectively maintaining the roots of plants and vegetables, but also of large trees such as fruit trees. Finally, we find the inert component, mainly formed from inorganic matter crushed like sand or gravel. Naturally, both the clay and vegetable and inert components are in turn composed of materials that can vary from case to case due to their physical or chemical nature. The way in which these substances are mixed together, considering their intrinsic interchangeable composition depending on the case, will give different structures and properties to the soil to be used: alkalinity, acidity, moisture retention capacity (in a positive or negative sense ), ability to release or retain nutrients, more or less intense possibilities of aeration for the roots etc. All these factors must be carefully weighed if the intention is to cultivate a small garden. The whole environmental, meteorological and climatic system must be taken into consideration. Moreover, no less important, it will be essential to inquire about the needs of the plants you are about to grow. A cauliflower will require a different type of soil than, for example, a carrot or a fruit tree. Each component will then be dosed and calibrated so that the plants grow in the best way possible.
Useful soil found in nature
Along the evolution of geological eras, as well as the physical structure of human beings, animals and vegetation has changed, even the types of natural soil have undergone sometimes substantial mutations, sometimes simply sensitive. These mutations also had to adapt to plant varieties in order to survive better at different degrees of acidity or alkalinity, nourishment, humidity.
Inside the natural soil, we find mainly some categories of elements that are generally repeated in the different types of soil and which play a very important role in the growth of plants, bringing them nourishment and vigor. First of all we find macro-elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Phosphorus is that element that favors flowering, fruiting and seed production. Potassium, on the other hand, has a fundamental importance with regard to the root system of tubers and fruits, making them at the same time even more resistant to frost and drought. Nitrogen is very useful for all the green parts and for the root system.
A good type of natural earth will also have all those beneficial elements that must be classified as microelements. Among these we find iron, copper, zinc, manganese and boron. All very precious elements for their coadjuvant function in the correct and specific nourishment of the vegetables to be cultivated.
Not to be neglected are all the living microorganisms that help the soil to transform, gradually becoming softer, airy and fertile.
Specific product soil for the garden
In the creation of an effective and satisfying capable vegetable garden, the presence of a good soil that contains in its composition all those nourishing elements suitable to satisfy the basic needs of the plants is necessary, without prejudice to the fact that each requires a particular element rather than another. In any case, the type of land must make the soil suitable for hosting specific plants, so the choice of the right one is the first step towards the creation of a healthy and lush garden.
First of all, the type of cultivation to be undertaken must be planned in advance. In fact, it will be appropriate to plant compatible vegetables in the same soil, so that nutrients are not removed from each other but rather help each other. Then, of course, it is good that vegetables are also compatible from the point of view of the elements they need, so that a rational choice of the specific land can be made for the intent.
The preparation of the soil during sowing is one of the most important steps, especially for the vegetable component of the earth. At this stage we could prepare a mixture of manure and plant residues. In some cases it is even advisable to use peat, very useful during sowing (even here it is necessary to choose suitable plants, in fact the peat is by its nature acidic. It would be incompatible with demanding plants for alkaline soils). Peat preserves water particles well, preventing their dispersion and prevents infections.
However, for the creation of a good soil there are innumerable possibilities, taking into account all the factors mentioned in this article (nutrient elements, moisture retention capacity, stability etc.)
In case you want to buy it already ready, the soil is commercially available in various assortments and different compositions. The most common is that of universal soil, more or less suitable for all types and varieties of vegetables. You could also find those without clay or with more clay, depending on your needs; or with more or less acidic pH conditions.
The best advice is to evaluate carefully and a priori all aspects of the garden that you intend to cultivate: type of vegetable, soil composition, exposure to wind, frost or sun. Once you have assessed all of these factors, then you can decide for yourself how to create your customized soil satisfactorily and effectively.