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What is a mushroom
Mushrooms, or mycetes are a class of compounds to which single-celled organisms and multicellular organisms belong. These are organisms that belong to the plant kingdom, but do not have leaves, flowers, they are rich in small spores through which they reproduce, which correspond to the seeds of higher plants. From fertilization we obtain the formation of a mycelium consisting of very small filaments called hyphae that are found in the ground, through which the fungus subsequently feeds. As we know, mycetes are born in nature but can be grown, paying attention to all the details, such as temperature, humidity, soil conditions otherwise the cultivation is unsuccessful. In nature there are many poisonous species, for this reason, you have to be very careful about what you collect; they are organisms that do not have a specific habitat, they grow in parks near trees, near rivers, in your garden, in the mountains, but not all of them can be used for food use. The recognition of a fungal species is also very important because the repercussions when eating a poisonous organism are many and can even lead to death. There are many species of fungi that are present in nature, ranging from the most used porcini mushrooms and they can be cultivated very easily to truffles, which are very special mushrooms, very difficult to find because they are born and grow underground; on the market they are worth a lot in economic terms, they are very valuable, especially the white truffle much more difficult to find.
Easier to grow species
Today not everyone has time to spend a quiet day in the woods in search of delicious wild mushrooms; for this reason many decide to grow them on their own terrace or in the garden. Not all species, however, can be cultivated, the most suitable for cultivation are Prataiolo or more commonly called champignon or porcini mushroom or nails, since they are species that do not need particular attention, but once the habitat has been created just the whole comes by itself. There are numerous varieties of champignon mushrooms that vary in color and size; the anatomical characteristics of the field mushroom are very simple, it has a fleshy hat that varies from white to red, with numerous lamellae and the stem when the fungus is adult it is linear and white, it is very used in the kitchen, since it presents a good taste. There are also many varieties of porcini mushroom, but the salient feature of this mushroom is the cap which has a circular shape that distinguishes it from all other types of fungus. It is much appreciated in the kitchen because it is the protagonist of numerous dishes. Tacks are a fungal species that lives at the foot of dead trees and depending on the tree that hosts it, they take on a different color.
Materials needed for cultivation
The materials needed for cultivation are those that allow you to recreate the natural habitat and therefore allow you to recreate the bond that exists in nature between the fungus and a plant, as we know that the fungi are symbionts. If you want to create an amateur mushroom and therefore require less effort, you need to take a wooden, plastic or any box with the bottom; a sheet of plastic useful for covering the bottom of the box, the substrate which is a mixture of seasoned manure, straw and residual dried vegetable residues, enough to fill the box or box, of the calcareous earth, the important thing is not a very acid soil, or alternatively ready-made substrates can be purchased. On the basis of the fungal species that one wants to cultivate, the fungus mycelia are purchased and then sown inside the substrate.
How to grow mushrooms: Procedure for cultivation
Creating an amateur mushroom is not very expensive, the matter changes if you want to start an industrial cultivation, but in any case the materials needed to start an activity of this kind does not require much money. The most important thing to ensure that the cultivation is successful is the choice of the substrate and the creation of an environment similar to the natural one; This is not very difficult, but you have to be very careful in the first phase. Once the box has been prepared and the substrate is placed inside it at five cm from the upper edge, you have to water it and let it rest for about 2 weeks and then bury the fungus mycelia. In the first phase of mycelial growth a temperature of about 25 ° C is required and above all the substrate must always be kept moist; in the first 15 days a white mold can be observed which you will have to rediscover with a layer of calcareous substrate and continue to water. After another 15 days you will be able to see the first mushrooms that need a fresh and moist, well-shaded and above all clean habitat, of course the substrate must always be moist and can be covered with dried leaves, tables or boxes to always keep humid. Cultivation generally lasts four to six months, but the most important thing is hygiene, since they are organisms susceptible to parasitic diseases.