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Depending on the type of plant, it will be decided when and how to fertilize, given that the nutritional requirements are also different based on the duration of the production process.During growth, the plants must be fertilized constantly in the ways and in the quantities specified for each different species to avoid the onset of diseases and de-killing. The ideal period is in late autumn or early winter: after having been plowed, the soil must be cleaned of any old crop roots and then it must be entirely fertilized to create a fertile bottom up to a depth of 40 cm and then the whole surface. The fertilizer of this first process will have to contain high levels of nitrogen, whether organic fertilizer or slow release granular fertilizer is used over time. In spring then, before sowing, the soil must be cleared and enriched with additional fertilizer. In the flowering period it will be ideal then to use manure to enrich the phosphorus soil and then to increase the growth of vegetables in quality and quantity.Types of fertilizers
There are various types of fertilizers also based on the release times of the mineral salts in the soil: the quick-effect fertilizers release the nutrients in a very short time (a few hours or a few days), whereas the slow-release ones need a few weeks until some months to have chemical efficacy.
Fertilizers with fast mobility can be dissolved even in water to irrigate the soil, while those which are poorly mobile must be placed in contact with the ground near the roots.
Then there are mineral fertilizers, chemical fertilizers and organic mixtures suitable for intensive agricultural cultivation and specific crops; granular, powder or liquid ones.
For organic fertilization, natural fertilizers such as animal, vegetable and mixed fertilizers are used, which have zero impact on the environment and on health.
The most used fertilizer remains the manure coming from animal excrement, mixed with dry grass and straw fermented together, the most common being the bovine one, very suitable for fertilizing sandy soils; and to follow the compost which is a set of vegetables and fruit no longer usable, branches, cut grass and peat; both of these two types of fertilizer carry out a nourishing action of the soil in a fairly short time, also encouraging the growth of vegetables. A good fertilizer made with manure is 3 or 4 quintals of mature manure for every 100 square meters of horticultural surface.
To avoid discomfort with the neighborhood (for unpleasant odors), however, a worthy substitute for the main fertilizers is the pelleted manure, perfect for every type of cultivation but especially for vegetable gardens and for potted crops. Its main characteristic is that of rebalancing the PH of the soil, making it less acidic.
Fortunately, pesticides are being used less and less and some plants have been introduced by farmers to be placed close to vegetables, which host insects or small animals that eat unwanted pests, thus avoiding pollution.
To restore the balance of the substances in the soil the method of crop rotation is increasingly used in order to allow time for the soil and its nutrient and chemical principles to regenerate.
The organic garden
To create and maintain an organic vegetable garden it takes perhaps a little more effort and constancy but the advantage is that of always having fresh vegetables, without pesticides and therefore benefits for the organism and total respect for the environment, with a considerable cash savings.
Contact with nature is also re-established as the natural cycles of the earth are followed for cultivation.
The area to be cultivated must be sheltered from the weather during the winter and very sunny in spring and summer.
Instead, to eliminate pests without the use of pesticides, it is enough to use the simple rules offered by nature: weeds should not be torn because they contribute to maintaining the ecological balance; the same applies to the nettle, which keeps away many pests and harmful insects and instead it is good to let ladybirds, dragonflies, bees and earthworms proliferate which will eliminate any unwanted parasite.