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The cut and some general rules for pruning
Shears are the essential tool for good pruning. Sharp and well cleaned, they are used to cut the shoots, making an incision of about 5 millimeters above a bud, maintaining the oblique cut to allow rainwater to flow well. The surface of the cut must not have fraying and must be as small as possible.
Possibly, if you are a beginner, it is good to have a little mastic for plants, to correct or close any errors in the cut.
The cut should always be set so that the upper bud is facing the outside of the plant.
But a good cut made at the right time is not enough to guarantee a good flowering of the roses. First, it is necessary to remove any dead parts, twigs, frozen and damaged buds before starting pruning. Basically, the fewer buds are left, the more the plant will concentrate its energy on the remaining ones, thus increasing the flowering, but we must not even exaggerate in reducing the aerial part of the plant, which is the one that allows sun exposure and therefore also flowering . The advice is always to eliminate weak jets, without thinking too much, and leave only the strongest ones; in doing so, the rose will not lose its energies in keeping weak buds alive that would not have given a good flowering.
If any doubt assails you at the time of the cut, try to identify the oldest jets, the most woody ones, the hardest, and leave those that are certainly the strongest, even if they are smaller than the others.
Types of roses
If you don't have to look too much at the calendar to understand when the best time for pruning is, it is also true that you have to take into account the type of rose you are going to treat. Each specialty has some peculiarities that should be kept in mind. Here is a brief summary.
La Rosa Floribunda
A Floribunda should theoretically present very productive shoots guaranteeing an abundant flowering (и floribunda, in fact). To maintain its bushy appearance it is also necessary not to prune too often, just to avoid too disordered growth.
But she too, from her high potential, needs good pruning, even severe, never leaving more than 4-5 shoots per mature plant.