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Grow fruit plant
Melo, Pero, Ciliegio require a sufficiently large space to grow healthy and lush. It is not rare, however, to see on balconies or terraces, some fruit plants grown inside more or less large pots. Obviously their production will never be comparable to that obtainable in full earth, but they can still give a certain satisfaction to those who deal with it. For the lucky ones who have suitable land, the problem of choosing the plants to be cultivated arises. Notwithstanding that the ideal for an orchard would be the hill, most of the fruit plants can give fairly good results almost everywhere, just think of the medlar, persimmon, figs that even in full city can vegetate and bear fruit. The only condition that cannot be ignored is that the climate is favorable. The soil must be suitable, or in any case properly prepared before planting the plants; it must be neutral, permeable, worked at least 50 centimeters deep and fertilized with abundant manure. Planting will generally be done in the fall, digging holes 50-60 centimeters deep and about one meter wide. The choice of saplings must be made in a specialized nursery, preferring young but vigorous subjects that will be placed in the holes together with a support pole, tied to the trunk with a piece of wide cloth so as not to damage it. Once the hole is covered, so as to leave a depression around the tree, it will be necessary to water it abundantly. In some subjects it will be necessary to make a pruning to give the plant the desired shape. As can be guessed the care required for an orchard are many, especially during the first year of life and specific from plant to plant. Let's take a closer look at the most common fruit trees.
Citrus plants are widespread in Italy and include lemon (Citrus limonum), orange (Citrus aurantium), mandarin (Citrus nobilis) and the like. These are plants that require a rather mild climate, typical of the Mediterranean basin, with winters that are not too cold and summers that are not too hot. They therefore fear excessively low temperatures, below 0 ° C, and excessively high temperatures, above 40 ° C, which could irreparably damage the fruit. Citrus trees, preferably already grown, must be transplanted to their homes preferably in early spring, even without fertilizing, and watered sparingly. The essential thing is that the soil favors good water drainage and has a neutral pH. Every year in spring a pruning will be performed to eliminate the dry branches and the so-called "suckers". As far as diseases are concerned, it must be borne in mind that citrus fruits are subject to root rot and attack by aphids and cochineals that can be eliminated with traditional chemical methods or through biological control. If desired, the citrus fruits can also be cultivated in pots, having the foresight to place them in a sunny and sheltered from the wind, especially in the cold season.
Apple tree (Malus domestica)
Melo grows very well where the climate tends to be quite rigid and prefers far too much humidity rather than prolonged dryness. The ideal would therefore be to be able to cultivate it in the mountains or on the hills. The soil needs nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and microelements, which must be introduced through fertilization. Since there are different varieties whose fruits ripen at different times of the year, it will be necessary to choose the one that best suits your needs. It is certainly a type of plant that can be made to develop vertically by appropriate pruning, which must maintain a good balance between the root system and the foliage. Also in the case of the apple tree the typical diseases such as rot, powdery mildew and attack by numerous species of insects, can be fought by using specific products.
The Pear (Pyrus communis)
It requires a very fertile, slightly calcareous and rather permeable soil. It is a very rustic plant and resists well even at temperatures up to 20 ° C below zero and is also very long-lived, managing to give a lush harvest even for tens of years. The flowers appear in March-April and are very sensitive to frost. If the temperature actually drops below 3 ° C below zero it would destroy them. Fertilization should be carried out annually using mature manure possibly supplemented with products based on nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Pruning is specific to the cultivated variety and can ripen from July to April.
The apricot (Prunus armeniaca) and the Peach (Prunus persica)
These two fruit trees grow in the same type of soil, light but fertile, and find the ideal conditions of life and production with an exposure to the south-east or south-west, possibly sheltered by walls or hedges. Above all the apricot, it is not suitable to be cultivated where the climatic conditions are too rigid, since having an early flowering, this would be easily damaged by the frost. It is important to administer phosphorus and potassium with the fertilizer, elements that must absolutely be present in the soil. They must be pruned by expert personnel and, rather abundantly in the case of apricot, which tends to have a rather disordered growth.
Growing a fruit plant: La Vite (Vitis vinifera)
Very suitable for covering all types of pergolas, the vine grows well in all those places where the climatic conditions are not prohibitive. It is a long-lived plant that requires sunny positions and is able to grow luxuriant even where the soil is arid and stony. The reason for this lies in the fact that the vine has roots that descend into the ground at great depths in search of nutrients. However, she suffers in environments with too acid or too moist soil. The varieties available are really many and among them it will surely be possible to find the one that best suits the characteristics of the soil of the planting. The pruning must be performed twice a year by expert hands and the fertilization must be suitable and studied according to the needs of the plant, but still made up of abundant manure.